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Enhanced Lacto-Tri-Peptide Bio-Availability by Co-Ingestion of Macronutrients.

Ten Have GA, van der Pijl PC, Kies AK, Deutz NE - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In a second experiment (n=10), we compared the CasH-containing protein matrix with a CasH-containing meal matrix and the modifying effects of macronutrients in a meal on the availability (high carbohydrates, low quality protein, high fat, and fiber).Low protein quality and fiber increased XPP systemic bioavailability further (respectively 1.5 and 1.4 times).We conclude that the amount and quality of the protein, and the presence of fiber in a meal, are the main factors that increase the systemic bioavailability of food-derived XPP.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Translational Research in Aging & Longevity, Department of Health & Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, United States of America; Department of Surgery, Nutrition and Toxicology Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Some food-derived peptides possess bioactive properties, and may affect health positively. For example, the C-terminal lacto-tri-peptides Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP), Leu-Pro-Pro (LPP) and Val-Pro-Pro (VPP) (together named here XPP) are described to lower blood pressure. The bioactivity depends on their availability at the site of action. Quantitative trans-organ availability/kinetic measurements will provide more insight in C-terminal tri-peptides behavior in the body. We hypothesize that the composition of the meal will modify their systemic availability. We studied trans-organ XPP fluxes in catheterized pigs (25 kg; n=10) to determine systemic and portal availability, as well as renal and hepatic uptake of a water-based single dose of synthetic XPP and a XPP containing protein matrix (casein hydrolyte, CasH). In a second experiment (n=10), we compared the CasH-containing protein matrix with a CasH-containing meal matrix and the modifying effects of macronutrients in a meal on the availability (high carbohydrates, low quality protein, high fat, and fiber). Portal availability of synthetic XPP was 0.08 ± 0.01% of intake and increased when a protein matrix was present (respectively 3.1, 1.8 and 83 times for IPP, LPP and VPP). Difference between individual XPP was probably due to release from longer peptides. CasH prolonged portal bioavailability with 18 min (absorption half-life, synthetic XPP: 15 ± 2 min, CasH: 33 ± 3 min, p<0.0001) and increased systemic elimination with 20 min (synthetic XPP: 12 ± 2 min; CasH: 32 ± 3 min, p<0.0001). Subsequent renal and hepatic uptake is about 75% of the portal release. A meal containing CasH, increased portal 1.8 and systemic bioavailability 1.2 times. Low protein quality and fiber increased XPP systemic bioavailability further (respectively 1.5 and 1.4 times). We conclude that the amount and quality of the protein, and the presence of fiber in a meal, are the main factors that increase the systemic bioavailability of food-derived XPP.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Portal Drained Viscera fluxes of XPP—Effect of a protein matrix.Post-prandial portal drained viscera (PDV) fluxes after intra-gastric administration of tri-peptide (XPP) mixtures: control salt solution (Control), synthetic XPP’s (XPP), casein hydrolyte rich in XPP (CasH) or spiked CasH (CasH + XPP). A: Isoleucine-proline-proline (IPP). B: Leucine-proline-proline (LPP). C: Valine-proline-proline (VPP). Respective number of observations for Control, XPP, CasH and CasH +XPP are for graph A: n = 6, 9, 8 and 9; graph B: n = 6, 10, 9 and 9; graph C: n = 5, 9, 9 and 9. Values are mean ± SEM. Positive values is net release, negative values is net uptake. Statistics: repeated measures two-way ANOVA, mixed model, planned comparisons. All curves are significantly different from the XPP mixture: effect test mixture p<0.01; effect time p<0.01; interaction p<0.01
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pone.0130638.g002: Portal Drained Viscera fluxes of XPP—Effect of a protein matrix.Post-prandial portal drained viscera (PDV) fluxes after intra-gastric administration of tri-peptide (XPP) mixtures: control salt solution (Control), synthetic XPP’s (XPP), casein hydrolyte rich in XPP (CasH) or spiked CasH (CasH + XPP). A: Isoleucine-proline-proline (IPP). B: Leucine-proline-proline (LPP). C: Valine-proline-proline (VPP). Respective number of observations for Control, XPP, CasH and CasH +XPP are for graph A: n = 6, 9, 8 and 9; graph B: n = 6, 10, 9 and 9; graph C: n = 5, 9, 9 and 9. Values are mean ± SEM. Positive values is net release, negative values is net uptake. Statistics: repeated measures two-way ANOVA, mixed model, planned comparisons. All curves are significantly different from the XPP mixture: effect test mixture p<0.01; effect time p<0.01; interaction p<0.01

Mentions: PDV fluxes showed a net release of all XPP after intra gastric administration of XPP in different matrixes (Fig 2). We observed no endogenous production of XPP by the PDV. The patterns of the curves were comparable for IPP, LPP and VPP. No differences in PDV plasma flows were observed (S2 Table. Plasma flows—Study 1.). The single dose water-based synthetic XPP matrix, showed comparable portal availability for IPP, LPP and VPP, with an average of 0.08 ± 0.01% of the intake (Table 4). The portal availability was higher in a protein (CasH) matrix than in water-based XPP matrix, but different between IPP, LPP and VPP (IPP 3.1 times, p = 0.026; LPP 1.8 times, p = 0.23; VPP 83 times, p<0.0001). For VPP, the spiked CasH showed a different portal availability in comparing to the non-spiked CasH matrix (0.05 times of CasH, p<0.0001). To understand the significant XPP effect and spike effect, data were further analyzed, by expressing the data as % of theoretically intake of XPP (S3 Table. Theoretical XPP intake and their portal availability—Study 1.), considering the tri-peptide sequences in the source of the CasH: amino acid sequence of bovine k and β casein (www.genome.jp; CASB-BOVIN, CASK-BOVIN). No spike effect of VPP was observed when corrected of potential non free available VPP sequences in the CasH. With this correction we determined that on average the portal availability was 1.8 times higher in the protein matrix (XPP 0.08 ± 0.01 vs CasH 0.14 ± 0.02, two-way ANOVA, matrix effect, p = 0.004). Further analyses of the PDV flux curves showed an increase of 2.1 times of the portal release half-life (Table 4) in the protein matrix in comparison to the water-based matrix (XPP: 15 ± 2 min vs CasH: 33 ± 3 min, two-way ANOVA, matrix effect <0.0001).


Enhanced Lacto-Tri-Peptide Bio-Availability by Co-Ingestion of Macronutrients.

Ten Have GA, van der Pijl PC, Kies AK, Deutz NE - PLoS ONE (2015)

Portal Drained Viscera fluxes of XPP—Effect of a protein matrix.Post-prandial portal drained viscera (PDV) fluxes after intra-gastric administration of tri-peptide (XPP) mixtures: control salt solution (Control), synthetic XPP’s (XPP), casein hydrolyte rich in XPP (CasH) or spiked CasH (CasH + XPP). A: Isoleucine-proline-proline (IPP). B: Leucine-proline-proline (LPP). C: Valine-proline-proline (VPP). Respective number of observations for Control, XPP, CasH and CasH +XPP are for graph A: n = 6, 9, 8 and 9; graph B: n = 6, 10, 9 and 9; graph C: n = 5, 9, 9 and 9. Values are mean ± SEM. Positive values is net release, negative values is net uptake. Statistics: repeated measures two-way ANOVA, mixed model, planned comparisons. All curves are significantly different from the XPP mixture: effect test mixture p<0.01; effect time p<0.01; interaction p<0.01
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4476664&req=5

pone.0130638.g002: Portal Drained Viscera fluxes of XPP—Effect of a protein matrix.Post-prandial portal drained viscera (PDV) fluxes after intra-gastric administration of tri-peptide (XPP) mixtures: control salt solution (Control), synthetic XPP’s (XPP), casein hydrolyte rich in XPP (CasH) or spiked CasH (CasH + XPP). A: Isoleucine-proline-proline (IPP). B: Leucine-proline-proline (LPP). C: Valine-proline-proline (VPP). Respective number of observations for Control, XPP, CasH and CasH +XPP are for graph A: n = 6, 9, 8 and 9; graph B: n = 6, 10, 9 and 9; graph C: n = 5, 9, 9 and 9. Values are mean ± SEM. Positive values is net release, negative values is net uptake. Statistics: repeated measures two-way ANOVA, mixed model, planned comparisons. All curves are significantly different from the XPP mixture: effect test mixture p<0.01; effect time p<0.01; interaction p<0.01
Mentions: PDV fluxes showed a net release of all XPP after intra gastric administration of XPP in different matrixes (Fig 2). We observed no endogenous production of XPP by the PDV. The patterns of the curves were comparable for IPP, LPP and VPP. No differences in PDV plasma flows were observed (S2 Table. Plasma flows—Study 1.). The single dose water-based synthetic XPP matrix, showed comparable portal availability for IPP, LPP and VPP, with an average of 0.08 ± 0.01% of the intake (Table 4). The portal availability was higher in a protein (CasH) matrix than in water-based XPP matrix, but different between IPP, LPP and VPP (IPP 3.1 times, p = 0.026; LPP 1.8 times, p = 0.23; VPP 83 times, p<0.0001). For VPP, the spiked CasH showed a different portal availability in comparing to the non-spiked CasH matrix (0.05 times of CasH, p<0.0001). To understand the significant XPP effect and spike effect, data were further analyzed, by expressing the data as % of theoretically intake of XPP (S3 Table. Theoretical XPP intake and their portal availability—Study 1.), considering the tri-peptide sequences in the source of the CasH: amino acid sequence of bovine k and β casein (www.genome.jp; CASB-BOVIN, CASK-BOVIN). No spike effect of VPP was observed when corrected of potential non free available VPP sequences in the CasH. With this correction we determined that on average the portal availability was 1.8 times higher in the protein matrix (XPP 0.08 ± 0.01 vs CasH 0.14 ± 0.02, two-way ANOVA, matrix effect, p = 0.004). Further analyses of the PDV flux curves showed an increase of 2.1 times of the portal release half-life (Table 4) in the protein matrix in comparison to the water-based matrix (XPP: 15 ± 2 min vs CasH: 33 ± 3 min, two-way ANOVA, matrix effect <0.0001).

Bottom Line: In a second experiment (n=10), we compared the CasH-containing protein matrix with a CasH-containing meal matrix and the modifying effects of macronutrients in a meal on the availability (high carbohydrates, low quality protein, high fat, and fiber).Low protein quality and fiber increased XPP systemic bioavailability further (respectively 1.5 and 1.4 times).We conclude that the amount and quality of the protein, and the presence of fiber in a meal, are the main factors that increase the systemic bioavailability of food-derived XPP.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Translational Research in Aging & Longevity, Department of Health & Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, United States of America; Department of Surgery, Nutrition and Toxicology Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Some food-derived peptides possess bioactive properties, and may affect health positively. For example, the C-terminal lacto-tri-peptides Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP), Leu-Pro-Pro (LPP) and Val-Pro-Pro (VPP) (together named here XPP) are described to lower blood pressure. The bioactivity depends on their availability at the site of action. Quantitative trans-organ availability/kinetic measurements will provide more insight in C-terminal tri-peptides behavior in the body. We hypothesize that the composition of the meal will modify their systemic availability. We studied trans-organ XPP fluxes in catheterized pigs (25 kg; n=10) to determine systemic and portal availability, as well as renal and hepatic uptake of a water-based single dose of synthetic XPP and a XPP containing protein matrix (casein hydrolyte, CasH). In a second experiment (n=10), we compared the CasH-containing protein matrix with a CasH-containing meal matrix and the modifying effects of macronutrients in a meal on the availability (high carbohydrates, low quality protein, high fat, and fiber). Portal availability of synthetic XPP was 0.08 ± 0.01% of intake and increased when a protein matrix was present (respectively 3.1, 1.8 and 83 times for IPP, LPP and VPP). Difference between individual XPP was probably due to release from longer peptides. CasH prolonged portal bioavailability with 18 min (absorption half-life, synthetic XPP: 15 ± 2 min, CasH: 33 ± 3 min, p<0.0001) and increased systemic elimination with 20 min (synthetic XPP: 12 ± 2 min; CasH: 32 ± 3 min, p<0.0001). Subsequent renal and hepatic uptake is about 75% of the portal release. A meal containing CasH, increased portal 1.8 and systemic bioavailability 1.2 times. Low protein quality and fiber increased XPP systemic bioavailability further (respectively 1.5 and 1.4 times). We conclude that the amount and quality of the protein, and the presence of fiber in a meal, are the main factors that increase the systemic bioavailability of food-derived XPP.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus