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24-Month-Olds' Selective Learning Is Not an All-or-None Phenomenon.

Henderson AM, Graham SA, Schell V - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Results indicated that toddlers learnt words from the typical source but not from the atypical or inaccurate source.In contrast, toddlers extended sound labels only when a source who had previously acted atypically provided the sound labels.Thus, toddlers, like preschoolers, avoid forming semantic representations of new object labels that are unlikely to be relevant in the broader community, but will form event-based memories of such labels if they have reason to suspect such labels will have in-context relevance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
Evidence that children maintain some memories of labels that are unlikely to be shared by the broader linguistic community suggests that children's selective learning is not an all-or-none phenomenon. Across three experiments, we examine the contexts in which 24-month-olds show selective learning and whether they adjust their selective learning if provided with cues of in-context relevance. In each experiment, toddlers were first familiarized with a source who acted on familiar objects in either typical or atypical ways (e.g., used a car to mimic driving or hop like a rabbit) or labeled familiar objects incorrectly (e.g., called a spoon a "brush"). The source then labeled unfamiliar objects using either a novel word (e.g., fep; Experiment 1) or sound (e.g., ring; Experiments 2 and 3). Results indicated that toddlers learnt words from the typical source but not from the atypical or inaccurate source. In contrast, toddlers extended sound labels only when a source who had previously acted atypically provided the sound labels. Thus, toddlers, like preschoolers, avoid forming semantic representations of new object labels that are unlikely to be relevant in the broader community, but will form event-based memories of such labels if they have reason to suspect such labels will have in-context relevance.

No MeSH data available.


The average number of target object selections (+- SE) during the object label extension and generalization phases (max = 2) made by infants in each group in Experiment 1 (i.e., word labels).
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pone.0131215.g001: The average number of target object selections (+- SE) during the object label extension and generalization phases (max = 2) made by infants in each group in Experiment 1 (i.e., word labels).

Mentions: The primary question of interest was whether the nature of a source’s object-directed behavior influenced 24-month-olds’ acquisition and generalization of novel labels. To address this question, we first computed the total number of target choices for the extension and generalization trials for each participant. If the child chose the target object, they were given a score of 1 on a given trial. If the child chose the distractor object or if the child did not choose either object, they were given a score of 0 on a trial. Thus, children received a score of either zero correct, one correct, or two correct for both the extension and generalization trials. We then conducted planned one-way ANOVAs comparing toddlers’ target object choices on each type of trial as a function of group and trial (Fig 1). Note that that this analytic strategy, as opposed to an omnibus analysis, is recommended when specific a priori hypotheses can be formulated [32,33].


24-Month-Olds' Selective Learning Is Not an All-or-None Phenomenon.

Henderson AM, Graham SA, Schell V - PLoS ONE (2015)

The average number of target object selections (+- SE) during the object label extension and generalization phases (max = 2) made by infants in each group in Experiment 1 (i.e., word labels).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4476613&req=5

pone.0131215.g001: The average number of target object selections (+- SE) during the object label extension and generalization phases (max = 2) made by infants in each group in Experiment 1 (i.e., word labels).
Mentions: The primary question of interest was whether the nature of a source’s object-directed behavior influenced 24-month-olds’ acquisition and generalization of novel labels. To address this question, we first computed the total number of target choices for the extension and generalization trials for each participant. If the child chose the target object, they were given a score of 1 on a given trial. If the child chose the distractor object or if the child did not choose either object, they were given a score of 0 on a trial. Thus, children received a score of either zero correct, one correct, or two correct for both the extension and generalization trials. We then conducted planned one-way ANOVAs comparing toddlers’ target object choices on each type of trial as a function of group and trial (Fig 1). Note that that this analytic strategy, as opposed to an omnibus analysis, is recommended when specific a priori hypotheses can be formulated [32,33].

Bottom Line: Results indicated that toddlers learnt words from the typical source but not from the atypical or inaccurate source.In contrast, toddlers extended sound labels only when a source who had previously acted atypically provided the sound labels.Thus, toddlers, like preschoolers, avoid forming semantic representations of new object labels that are unlikely to be relevant in the broader community, but will form event-based memories of such labels if they have reason to suspect such labels will have in-context relevance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
Evidence that children maintain some memories of labels that are unlikely to be shared by the broader linguistic community suggests that children's selective learning is not an all-or-none phenomenon. Across three experiments, we examine the contexts in which 24-month-olds show selective learning and whether they adjust their selective learning if provided with cues of in-context relevance. In each experiment, toddlers were first familiarized with a source who acted on familiar objects in either typical or atypical ways (e.g., used a car to mimic driving or hop like a rabbit) or labeled familiar objects incorrectly (e.g., called a spoon a "brush"). The source then labeled unfamiliar objects using either a novel word (e.g., fep; Experiment 1) or sound (e.g., ring; Experiments 2 and 3). Results indicated that toddlers learnt words from the typical source but not from the atypical or inaccurate source. In contrast, toddlers extended sound labels only when a source who had previously acted atypically provided the sound labels. Thus, toddlers, like preschoolers, avoid forming semantic representations of new object labels that are unlikely to be relevant in the broader community, but will form event-based memories of such labels if they have reason to suspect such labels will have in-context relevance.

No MeSH data available.