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Advances in Electrophysiological Research.

Kamarajan C, Porjesz B - Alcohol Res (2015)

Bottom Line: Electrophysiological measures of brain function are effective tools to understand neurocognitive phenomena and sensitive indicators of pathophysiological processes associated with various clinical conditions, including alcoholism.Researchers have recently developed sophisticated signal-processing techniques to characterize different aspects of brain dynamics, which can aid in identifying the neural mechanisms underlying alcoholism and other related complex disorders.These quantitative measures of brain function also have been successfully used as endophenotypes to identify and help understand genes associated with AUD and related disorders.Translational research also is examining how brain electrophysiological measures potentially can be applied to diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Henri Begleiter Neurodynamics Laboratory, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York.

ABSTRACT
Electrophysiological measures of brain function are effective tools to understand neurocognitive phenomena and sensitive indicators of pathophysiological processes associated with various clinical conditions, including alcoholism. Individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and their high-risk offspring have consistently shown dysfunction in several electrophysiological measures in resting state (i.e., electroencephalogram) and during cognitive tasks (i.e., event-related potentials and event-related oscillations). Researchers have recently developed sophisticated signal-processing techniques to characterize different aspects of brain dynamics, which can aid in identifying the neural mechanisms underlying alcoholism and other related complex disorders.These quantitative measures of brain function also have been successfully used as endophenotypes to identify and help understand genes associated with AUD and related disorders. Translational research also is examining how brain electrophysiological measures potentially can be applied to diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Application of event-related potentials (ERPs) and event-related oscillations (EROs) in alcoholism during a visual oddball task (Jones et al. 2006b; Rangaswamy et al. 2007). The left side of the figure (panels A1–A3) compares alcoholics (ALC) and control subjects (CTL) (Jones et al. 2006b), whereas the right side of the figure (panels B1–B3) compares high-risk (HR) offspring and low-risk (LR) control subjects (Rangaswamy et al. 2007). Alcoholics showed lower P3 amplitudes than control subjects (panel A1), whereas HR offspring showed lower P3 amplitudes to targets than LR in the same visual oddball paradigm (panel B1). Panel A2 illustrates time-frequency (TF) plots for control subjects (center rectangular panel) with accompanying topographical head plots for delta (1 to 3 Hz) at the Pz electrode (right) and theta (4 to 5 Hz) at the Fz electrode (left). Panel A3 illustrates corresponding TF plots for alcoholics (center rectangular panel) with accompanying topographical head plots for delta (right) and theta (left). Alcoholics showed lower activation of both delta and theta EROs compared with control subjects (panels A2–A3) during the processing of targets. Panel B2 illustrates TF plots for LR (center rectangular panel) with accompanying topographical head plots for delta (1 to 3 Hz) at the Pz electrode (right) and theta (4 to 5 Hz) at the Fz electrode (left). Panel B3 illustrates corresponding TF plots for HR (center rectangular panel) with accompanying topographical head plots for delta (right) and theta (left). Similar to the alcoholics, HR offspring manifested lower activation in P3 (panel B1), delta and theta EROs (panels B2–B3) compared with LR control subjects.
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f4-arcr-37-1-53: Application of event-related potentials (ERPs) and event-related oscillations (EROs) in alcoholism during a visual oddball task (Jones et al. 2006b; Rangaswamy et al. 2007). The left side of the figure (panels A1–A3) compares alcoholics (ALC) and control subjects (CTL) (Jones et al. 2006b), whereas the right side of the figure (panels B1–B3) compares high-risk (HR) offspring and low-risk (LR) control subjects (Rangaswamy et al. 2007). Alcoholics showed lower P3 amplitudes than control subjects (panel A1), whereas HR offspring showed lower P3 amplitudes to targets than LR in the same visual oddball paradigm (panel B1). Panel A2 illustrates time-frequency (TF) plots for control subjects (center rectangular panel) with accompanying topographical head plots for delta (1 to 3 Hz) at the Pz electrode (right) and theta (4 to 5 Hz) at the Fz electrode (left). Panel A3 illustrates corresponding TF plots for alcoholics (center rectangular panel) with accompanying topographical head plots for delta (right) and theta (left). Alcoholics showed lower activation of both delta and theta EROs compared with control subjects (panels A2–A3) during the processing of targets. Panel B2 illustrates TF plots for LR (center rectangular panel) with accompanying topographical head plots for delta (1 to 3 Hz) at the Pz electrode (right) and theta (4 to 5 Hz) at the Fz electrode (left). Panel B3 illustrates corresponding TF plots for HR (center rectangular panel) with accompanying topographical head plots for delta (right) and theta (left). Similar to the alcoholics, HR offspring manifested lower activation in P3 (panel B1), delta and theta EROs (panels B2–B3) compared with LR control subjects.

Mentions: Studies have demonstrated that P3 responses are not unitary phenomena but primarily are the outcome of theta and delta oscillations elicited during stimulus processing (Basar-Eroglu et al. 1992; Karakas et al. 2000a,b); theta oscillations have a more anterior topography and are maximal over frontal areas, whereas delta oscillations have a posterior topography and are maximal over parietal areas. ERO delta responses are assumed to mediate signal detection, decision-making, and context/reward processing (Basar 1999b; Basar et al. 2001; Kamarajan et al. 2004; Schurmann et al. 2001), whereas ERO theta rhythms are associated with conscious awareness, episodic retrieval, recognition memory, executive control, inhibitory processing, and reward processing (Basar et al. 2001; Doppelmayr et al. 1998; Kamarajan et al. 2004, 2008; Karakas et al. 2000b; Klimesch et al. 2001). Studies consistently have found that alcoholics and their HR off-spring showed decreased delta and theta ERP power during oddball, Go/No-Go, and MGT tasks (for reviews, see Pandey et al. 2012a; Porjesz et al. 2005; Rangaswamy and Porjesz 2008b) (see figures 4 and 5).


Advances in Electrophysiological Research.

Kamarajan C, Porjesz B - Alcohol Res (2015)

Application of event-related potentials (ERPs) and event-related oscillations (EROs) in alcoholism during a visual oddball task (Jones et al. 2006b; Rangaswamy et al. 2007). The left side of the figure (panels A1–A3) compares alcoholics (ALC) and control subjects (CTL) (Jones et al. 2006b), whereas the right side of the figure (panels B1–B3) compares high-risk (HR) offspring and low-risk (LR) control subjects (Rangaswamy et al. 2007). Alcoholics showed lower P3 amplitudes than control subjects (panel A1), whereas HR offspring showed lower P3 amplitudes to targets than LR in the same visual oddball paradigm (panel B1). Panel A2 illustrates time-frequency (TF) plots for control subjects (center rectangular panel) with accompanying topographical head plots for delta (1 to 3 Hz) at the Pz electrode (right) and theta (4 to 5 Hz) at the Fz electrode (left). Panel A3 illustrates corresponding TF plots for alcoholics (center rectangular panel) with accompanying topographical head plots for delta (right) and theta (left). Alcoholics showed lower activation of both delta and theta EROs compared with control subjects (panels A2–A3) during the processing of targets. Panel B2 illustrates TF plots for LR (center rectangular panel) with accompanying topographical head plots for delta (1 to 3 Hz) at the Pz electrode (right) and theta (4 to 5 Hz) at the Fz electrode (left). Panel B3 illustrates corresponding TF plots for HR (center rectangular panel) with accompanying topographical head plots for delta (right) and theta (left). Similar to the alcoholics, HR offspring manifested lower activation in P3 (panel B1), delta and theta EROs (panels B2–B3) compared with LR control subjects.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4476604&req=5

f4-arcr-37-1-53: Application of event-related potentials (ERPs) and event-related oscillations (EROs) in alcoholism during a visual oddball task (Jones et al. 2006b; Rangaswamy et al. 2007). The left side of the figure (panels A1–A3) compares alcoholics (ALC) and control subjects (CTL) (Jones et al. 2006b), whereas the right side of the figure (panels B1–B3) compares high-risk (HR) offspring and low-risk (LR) control subjects (Rangaswamy et al. 2007). Alcoholics showed lower P3 amplitudes than control subjects (panel A1), whereas HR offspring showed lower P3 amplitudes to targets than LR in the same visual oddball paradigm (panel B1). Panel A2 illustrates time-frequency (TF) plots for control subjects (center rectangular panel) with accompanying topographical head plots for delta (1 to 3 Hz) at the Pz electrode (right) and theta (4 to 5 Hz) at the Fz electrode (left). Panel A3 illustrates corresponding TF plots for alcoholics (center rectangular panel) with accompanying topographical head plots for delta (right) and theta (left). Alcoholics showed lower activation of both delta and theta EROs compared with control subjects (panels A2–A3) during the processing of targets. Panel B2 illustrates TF plots for LR (center rectangular panel) with accompanying topographical head plots for delta (1 to 3 Hz) at the Pz electrode (right) and theta (4 to 5 Hz) at the Fz electrode (left). Panel B3 illustrates corresponding TF plots for HR (center rectangular panel) with accompanying topographical head plots for delta (right) and theta (left). Similar to the alcoholics, HR offspring manifested lower activation in P3 (panel B1), delta and theta EROs (panels B2–B3) compared with LR control subjects.
Mentions: Studies have demonstrated that P3 responses are not unitary phenomena but primarily are the outcome of theta and delta oscillations elicited during stimulus processing (Basar-Eroglu et al. 1992; Karakas et al. 2000a,b); theta oscillations have a more anterior topography and are maximal over frontal areas, whereas delta oscillations have a posterior topography and are maximal over parietal areas. ERO delta responses are assumed to mediate signal detection, decision-making, and context/reward processing (Basar 1999b; Basar et al. 2001; Kamarajan et al. 2004; Schurmann et al. 2001), whereas ERO theta rhythms are associated with conscious awareness, episodic retrieval, recognition memory, executive control, inhibitory processing, and reward processing (Basar et al. 2001; Doppelmayr et al. 1998; Kamarajan et al. 2004, 2008; Karakas et al. 2000b; Klimesch et al. 2001). Studies consistently have found that alcoholics and their HR off-spring showed decreased delta and theta ERP power during oddball, Go/No-Go, and MGT tasks (for reviews, see Pandey et al. 2012a; Porjesz et al. 2005; Rangaswamy and Porjesz 2008b) (see figures 4 and 5).

Bottom Line: Electrophysiological measures of brain function are effective tools to understand neurocognitive phenomena and sensitive indicators of pathophysiological processes associated with various clinical conditions, including alcoholism.Researchers have recently developed sophisticated signal-processing techniques to characterize different aspects of brain dynamics, which can aid in identifying the neural mechanisms underlying alcoholism and other related complex disorders.These quantitative measures of brain function also have been successfully used as endophenotypes to identify and help understand genes associated with AUD and related disorders.Translational research also is examining how brain electrophysiological measures potentially can be applied to diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Henri Begleiter Neurodynamics Laboratory, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York.

ABSTRACT
Electrophysiological measures of brain function are effective tools to understand neurocognitive phenomena and sensitive indicators of pathophysiological processes associated with various clinical conditions, including alcoholism. Individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and their high-risk offspring have consistently shown dysfunction in several electrophysiological measures in resting state (i.e., electroencephalogram) and during cognitive tasks (i.e., event-related potentials and event-related oscillations). Researchers have recently developed sophisticated signal-processing techniques to characterize different aspects of brain dynamics, which can aid in identifying the neural mechanisms underlying alcoholism and other related complex disorders.These quantitative measures of brain function also have been successfully used as endophenotypes to identify and help understand genes associated with AUD and related disorders. Translational research also is examining how brain electrophysiological measures potentially can be applied to diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus