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Advances in Electrophysiological Research.

Kamarajan C, Porjesz B - Alcohol Res (2015)

Bottom Line: Electrophysiological measures of brain function are effective tools to understand neurocognitive phenomena and sensitive indicators of pathophysiological processes associated with various clinical conditions, including alcoholism.Researchers have recently developed sophisticated signal-processing techniques to characterize different aspects of brain dynamics, which can aid in identifying the neural mechanisms underlying alcoholism and other related complex disorders.These quantitative measures of brain function also have been successfully used as endophenotypes to identify and help understand genes associated with AUD and related disorders.Translational research also is examining how brain electrophysiological measures potentially can be applied to diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Henri Begleiter Neurodynamics Laboratory, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York.

ABSTRACT
Electrophysiological measures of brain function are effective tools to understand neurocognitive phenomena and sensitive indicators of pathophysiological processes associated with various clinical conditions, including alcoholism. Individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and their high-risk offspring have consistently shown dysfunction in several electrophysiological measures in resting state (i.e., electroencephalogram) and during cognitive tasks (i.e., event-related potentials and event-related oscillations). Researchers have recently developed sophisticated signal-processing techniques to characterize different aspects of brain dynamics, which can aid in identifying the neural mechanisms underlying alcoholism and other related complex disorders.These quantitative measures of brain function also have been successfully used as endophenotypes to identify and help understand genes associated with AUD and related disorders. Translational research also is examining how brain electrophysiological measures potentially can be applied to diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Application of standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) to alcoholism. Top panels: Current density in alcoholics and control subjects were compared in a Go/No-Go task using sLORETA. Alcoholics showed significantly lower current density activations in bilateral anterior prefrontal regions during No-Go–related N2 activity (yellow blobs in top panels), indicating dysfunctional inhibitory control in alcoholics (Pandey et al. 2012b). Bottom panels: A sLORETA study in an MGT task found that alcoholics showed decreased current density activation at the middle cingulate cortex region during loss-related P3 activity (red blobs in bottom panels), indicating deficient activation in the reward-related structures or networks (Kamarajan et al. 2010).
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f2-arcr-37-1-53: Application of standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) to alcoholism. Top panels: Current density in alcoholics and control subjects were compared in a Go/No-Go task using sLORETA. Alcoholics showed significantly lower current density activations in bilateral anterior prefrontal regions during No-Go–related N2 activity (yellow blobs in top panels), indicating dysfunctional inhibitory control in alcoholics (Pandey et al. 2012b). Bottom panels: A sLORETA study in an MGT task found that alcoholics showed decreased current density activation at the middle cingulate cortex region during loss-related P3 activity (red blobs in bottom panels), indicating deficient activation in the reward-related structures or networks (Kamarajan et al. 2010).

Mentions: Using sLORETA in a Go/No-Go task, Pandey and colleagues (2012b) reported significantly smaller N2-related activations during the No-Go condition at bilateral anterior prefrontal regions in alcoholics compared with control subjects (see figure 2). Further, sLORETA analysis in a MGT task revealed that alcoholics, as compared with control subjects, showed significantly lower P3-related current density activations at cingulate gyrus, along with significantly reduced N2-related current density at postcentral gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and precentral gyrus during both loss and gain conditions (Kamarajan et al. 2010) (see figure 2). These studies demonstrate the utility of LORETA methods in revealing the activity patterns of key brain regions that are associated with neurocognitive dysfunction in alcoholics and HR offspring.


Advances in Electrophysiological Research.

Kamarajan C, Porjesz B - Alcohol Res (2015)

Application of standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) to alcoholism. Top panels: Current density in alcoholics and control subjects were compared in a Go/No-Go task using sLORETA. Alcoholics showed significantly lower current density activations in bilateral anterior prefrontal regions during No-Go–related N2 activity (yellow blobs in top panels), indicating dysfunctional inhibitory control in alcoholics (Pandey et al. 2012b). Bottom panels: A sLORETA study in an MGT task found that alcoholics showed decreased current density activation at the middle cingulate cortex region during loss-related P3 activity (red blobs in bottom panels), indicating deficient activation in the reward-related structures or networks (Kamarajan et al. 2010).
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4476604&req=5

f2-arcr-37-1-53: Application of standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) to alcoholism. Top panels: Current density in alcoholics and control subjects were compared in a Go/No-Go task using sLORETA. Alcoholics showed significantly lower current density activations in bilateral anterior prefrontal regions during No-Go–related N2 activity (yellow blobs in top panels), indicating dysfunctional inhibitory control in alcoholics (Pandey et al. 2012b). Bottom panels: A sLORETA study in an MGT task found that alcoholics showed decreased current density activation at the middle cingulate cortex region during loss-related P3 activity (red blobs in bottom panels), indicating deficient activation in the reward-related structures or networks (Kamarajan et al. 2010).
Mentions: Using sLORETA in a Go/No-Go task, Pandey and colleagues (2012b) reported significantly smaller N2-related activations during the No-Go condition at bilateral anterior prefrontal regions in alcoholics compared with control subjects (see figure 2). Further, sLORETA analysis in a MGT task revealed that alcoholics, as compared with control subjects, showed significantly lower P3-related current density activations at cingulate gyrus, along with significantly reduced N2-related current density at postcentral gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and precentral gyrus during both loss and gain conditions (Kamarajan et al. 2010) (see figure 2). These studies demonstrate the utility of LORETA methods in revealing the activity patterns of key brain regions that are associated with neurocognitive dysfunction in alcoholics and HR offspring.

Bottom Line: Electrophysiological measures of brain function are effective tools to understand neurocognitive phenomena and sensitive indicators of pathophysiological processes associated with various clinical conditions, including alcoholism.Researchers have recently developed sophisticated signal-processing techniques to characterize different aspects of brain dynamics, which can aid in identifying the neural mechanisms underlying alcoholism and other related complex disorders.These quantitative measures of brain function also have been successfully used as endophenotypes to identify and help understand genes associated with AUD and related disorders.Translational research also is examining how brain electrophysiological measures potentially can be applied to diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Henri Begleiter Neurodynamics Laboratory, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York.

ABSTRACT
Electrophysiological measures of brain function are effective tools to understand neurocognitive phenomena and sensitive indicators of pathophysiological processes associated with various clinical conditions, including alcoholism. Individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and their high-risk offspring have consistently shown dysfunction in several electrophysiological measures in resting state (i.e., electroencephalogram) and during cognitive tasks (i.e., event-related potentials and event-related oscillations). Researchers have recently developed sophisticated signal-processing techniques to characterize different aspects of brain dynamics, which can aid in identifying the neural mechanisms underlying alcoholism and other related complex disorders.These quantitative measures of brain function also have been successfully used as endophenotypes to identify and help understand genes associated with AUD and related disorders. Translational research also is examining how brain electrophysiological measures potentially can be applied to diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus