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Utilization of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Research Involving Animal Models of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

Wang X, Kroenke CD - Alcohol Res (2015)

Bottom Line: Using MRI-based modalities, the FASD animal models have demonstrated decreased brain volume and abnormal brain shape, disrupted cellular morphology differentiation, altered neurochemistry, and blood perfusion.These animal studies have facilitated characterization of the direct effects of ethanol; in many cases identifying specific sequelae related to the timing and dose of exposure.Further, as a result of the ability to perform traditional (such as histological) analyses on animal brains following neuroimaging experiments, this work leads to improvements in the accuracy of our interpretations of neuroimaging findings in human studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon.

ABSTRACT
It is well recognized that fetal alcohol exposure can profoundly damage the developing brain. The term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) describes the range of deficits that result from prenatal alcohol exposure. Over the past two decades, researchers have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a noninvasive technique to characterize anatomical, physiological, and metabolic changes in the human brain that are part of FASD. As using animal models can circumvent many of the complications inherent to human studies, researchers have established and explored a number of models involving a range of species. Using MRI-based modalities, the FASD animal models have demonstrated decreased brain volume and abnormal brain shape, disrupted cellular morphology differentiation, altered neurochemistry, and blood perfusion. These animal studies have facilitated characterization of the direct effects of ethanol; in many cases identifying specific sequelae related to the timing and dose of exposure. Further, as a result of the ability to perform traditional (such as histological) analyses on animal brains following neuroimaging experiments, this work leads to improvements in the accuracy of our interpretations of neuroimaging findings in human studies.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Regional pattern of cerebral cortical thickness differences result from threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) analysis. On the top row, mean cortical thickness at postnatal day (PD) 11 for each group in the rat (n = 4 to 6/age/group) are projected onto target cortical surfaces. TFCE results are pictured in dark red in the last three rows representing regions in which mean cortical thickness between groups is significantly different (P < 0.05). Specific regional differences, centered on primary sensory areas were found among ethanol (E) and maltose/dextrin (M/D) groups at all ages. Regions of significant difference also were found in comparisons between E and control (C) groups at PD 0 and PD 11 and between control (C) and M/D groups at P 3 and P 6. Scale bars (in white) represent 2 mm. D, dorsal; V, ventral; Cd, caudal; R, rostral.NOTE: Figure adapted from Leigland et al. 2013a.
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f4-arcr-37-1-39: Regional pattern of cerebral cortical thickness differences result from threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) analysis. On the top row, mean cortical thickness at postnatal day (PD) 11 for each group in the rat (n = 4 to 6/age/group) are projected onto target cortical surfaces. TFCE results are pictured in dark red in the last three rows representing regions in which mean cortical thickness between groups is significantly different (P < 0.05). Specific regional differences, centered on primary sensory areas were found among ethanol (E) and maltose/dextrin (M/D) groups at all ages. Regions of significant difference also were found in comparisons between E and control (C) groups at PD 0 and PD 11 and between control (C) and M/D groups at P 3 and P 6. Scale bars (in white) represent 2 mm. D, dorsal; V, ventral; Cd, caudal; R, rostral.NOTE: Figure adapted from Leigland et al. 2013a.

Mentions: A trend of decreased γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (without statistical significance) also was observed in the striatum and cerebellum in the rats with neonatal ethanol exposure.


Utilization of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Research Involving Animal Models of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

Wang X, Kroenke CD - Alcohol Res (2015)

Regional pattern of cerebral cortical thickness differences result from threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) analysis. On the top row, mean cortical thickness at postnatal day (PD) 11 for each group in the rat (n = 4 to 6/age/group) are projected onto target cortical surfaces. TFCE results are pictured in dark red in the last three rows representing regions in which mean cortical thickness between groups is significantly different (P < 0.05). Specific regional differences, centered on primary sensory areas were found among ethanol (E) and maltose/dextrin (M/D) groups at all ages. Regions of significant difference also were found in comparisons between E and control (C) groups at PD 0 and PD 11 and between control (C) and M/D groups at P 3 and P 6. Scale bars (in white) represent 2 mm. D, dorsal; V, ventral; Cd, caudal; R, rostral.NOTE: Figure adapted from Leigland et al. 2013a.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4476603&req=5

f4-arcr-37-1-39: Regional pattern of cerebral cortical thickness differences result from threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) analysis. On the top row, mean cortical thickness at postnatal day (PD) 11 for each group in the rat (n = 4 to 6/age/group) are projected onto target cortical surfaces. TFCE results are pictured in dark red in the last three rows representing regions in which mean cortical thickness between groups is significantly different (P < 0.05). Specific regional differences, centered on primary sensory areas were found among ethanol (E) and maltose/dextrin (M/D) groups at all ages. Regions of significant difference also were found in comparisons between E and control (C) groups at PD 0 and PD 11 and between control (C) and M/D groups at P 3 and P 6. Scale bars (in white) represent 2 mm. D, dorsal; V, ventral; Cd, caudal; R, rostral.NOTE: Figure adapted from Leigland et al. 2013a.
Mentions: A trend of decreased γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (without statistical significance) also was observed in the striatum and cerebellum in the rats with neonatal ethanol exposure.

Bottom Line: Using MRI-based modalities, the FASD animal models have demonstrated decreased brain volume and abnormal brain shape, disrupted cellular morphology differentiation, altered neurochemistry, and blood perfusion.These animal studies have facilitated characterization of the direct effects of ethanol; in many cases identifying specific sequelae related to the timing and dose of exposure.Further, as a result of the ability to perform traditional (such as histological) analyses on animal brains following neuroimaging experiments, this work leads to improvements in the accuracy of our interpretations of neuroimaging findings in human studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon.

ABSTRACT
It is well recognized that fetal alcohol exposure can profoundly damage the developing brain. The term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) describes the range of deficits that result from prenatal alcohol exposure. Over the past two decades, researchers have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a noninvasive technique to characterize anatomical, physiological, and metabolic changes in the human brain that are part of FASD. As using animal models can circumvent many of the complications inherent to human studies, researchers have established and explored a number of models involving a range of species. Using MRI-based modalities, the FASD animal models have demonstrated decreased brain volume and abnormal brain shape, disrupted cellular morphology differentiation, altered neurochemistry, and blood perfusion. These animal studies have facilitated characterization of the direct effects of ethanol; in many cases identifying specific sequelae related to the timing and dose of exposure. Further, as a result of the ability to perform traditional (such as histological) analyses on animal brains following neuroimaging experiments, this work leads to improvements in the accuracy of our interpretations of neuroimaging findings in human studies.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus