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Utilization of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Research Involving Animal Models of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

Wang X, Kroenke CD - Alcohol Res (2015)

Bottom Line: Using MRI-based modalities, the FASD animal models have demonstrated decreased brain volume and abnormal brain shape, disrupted cellular morphology differentiation, altered neurochemistry, and blood perfusion.These animal studies have facilitated characterization of the direct effects of ethanol; in many cases identifying specific sequelae related to the timing and dose of exposure.Further, as a result of the ability to perform traditional (such as histological) analyses on animal brains following neuroimaging experiments, this work leads to improvements in the accuracy of our interpretations of neuroimaging findings in human studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon.

ABSTRACT
It is well recognized that fetal alcohol exposure can profoundly damage the developing brain. The term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) describes the range of deficits that result from prenatal alcohol exposure. Over the past two decades, researchers have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a noninvasive technique to characterize anatomical, physiological, and metabolic changes in the human brain that are part of FASD. As using animal models can circumvent many of the complications inherent to human studies, researchers have established and explored a number of models involving a range of species. Using MRI-based modalities, the FASD animal models have demonstrated decreased brain volume and abnormal brain shape, disrupted cellular morphology differentiation, altered neurochemistry, and blood perfusion. These animal studies have facilitated characterization of the direct effects of ethanol; in many cases identifying specific sequelae related to the timing and dose of exposure. Further, as a result of the ability to perform traditional (such as histological) analyses on animal brains following neuroimaging experiments, this work leads to improvements in the accuracy of our interpretations of neuroimaging findings in human studies.

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Timing schemes of popular animal models for FASD research.
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f1-arcr-37-1-39: Timing schemes of popular animal models for FASD research.

Mentions: Animal models allow researchers to control maternal and environmental variables such as genetic background, nutritional status, dosage, and timing pattern of ethanol insult, which frequently enables experiments to focus on the mechanisms of ethanol’s teratogenic action. As early as 1977, studies of mouse and rat FASD models confirmed the causal relationship between prenatal alcohol exposure and FASD, which had been speculated in clinical observations (Abel and Dintcheff 1978; Chernoff 1977). Shortly after, Sulik and colleagues (1981) demonstrated that treating pregnant mice with alcohol at gestation day (GD) 7 (equivalent to human gestation week [GW] 3) resulted in facial dysmorphology in their offspring, a finding consistent with FASD-affected human infants. Since then, researchers have established a number of animal models in a range of species to study the mechanism of alcohol’s teratogenic effects, to test the efficacy of protective interventions, and to improve the sensitivity and specificity of neuroimaging techniques for identifying FASD (see figure 1). Each model provides certain advantages and disadvantages as described below.


Utilization of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Research Involving Animal Models of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

Wang X, Kroenke CD - Alcohol Res (2015)

Timing schemes of popular animal models for FASD research.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4476603&req=5

f1-arcr-37-1-39: Timing schemes of popular animal models for FASD research.
Mentions: Animal models allow researchers to control maternal and environmental variables such as genetic background, nutritional status, dosage, and timing pattern of ethanol insult, which frequently enables experiments to focus on the mechanisms of ethanol’s teratogenic action. As early as 1977, studies of mouse and rat FASD models confirmed the causal relationship between prenatal alcohol exposure and FASD, which had been speculated in clinical observations (Abel and Dintcheff 1978; Chernoff 1977). Shortly after, Sulik and colleagues (1981) demonstrated that treating pregnant mice with alcohol at gestation day (GD) 7 (equivalent to human gestation week [GW] 3) resulted in facial dysmorphology in their offspring, a finding consistent with FASD-affected human infants. Since then, researchers have established a number of animal models in a range of species to study the mechanism of alcohol’s teratogenic effects, to test the efficacy of protective interventions, and to improve the sensitivity and specificity of neuroimaging techniques for identifying FASD (see figure 1). Each model provides certain advantages and disadvantages as described below.

Bottom Line: Using MRI-based modalities, the FASD animal models have demonstrated decreased brain volume and abnormal brain shape, disrupted cellular morphology differentiation, altered neurochemistry, and blood perfusion.These animal studies have facilitated characterization of the direct effects of ethanol; in many cases identifying specific sequelae related to the timing and dose of exposure.Further, as a result of the ability to perform traditional (such as histological) analyses on animal brains following neuroimaging experiments, this work leads to improvements in the accuracy of our interpretations of neuroimaging findings in human studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon.

ABSTRACT
It is well recognized that fetal alcohol exposure can profoundly damage the developing brain. The term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) describes the range of deficits that result from prenatal alcohol exposure. Over the past two decades, researchers have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a noninvasive technique to characterize anatomical, physiological, and metabolic changes in the human brain that are part of FASD. As using animal models can circumvent many of the complications inherent to human studies, researchers have established and explored a number of models involving a range of species. Using MRI-based modalities, the FASD animal models have demonstrated decreased brain volume and abnormal brain shape, disrupted cellular morphology differentiation, altered neurochemistry, and blood perfusion. These animal studies have facilitated characterization of the direct effects of ethanol; in many cases identifying specific sequelae related to the timing and dose of exposure. Further, as a result of the ability to perform traditional (such as histological) analyses on animal brains following neuroimaging experiments, this work leads to improvements in the accuracy of our interpretations of neuroimaging findings in human studies.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus