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Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches to Understanding Behavior Change in Alcohol Use Disorder Treatments.

Naqvi NH, Morgenstern J - Alcohol Res (2015)

Bottom Line: It then summarizes what is currently understood about the pathophysiology of addiction from a cognitive neuroscience perspective.The article highlights how the regulation of subcortical regions involved in alcohol incentive motivation by prefrontal cortical regions involved in cognitive control may be a core mechanism that plays a role in these varied forms of behavior change in AUD.We also lay out a multilevel framework for integrating cognitive neuroscience approaches with more traditional methods for examining AUD treatment mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division on Substance Abuse, Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, New York.

ABSTRACT
Researchers have begun to apply cognitive neuroscience concepts and methods to study behavior change mechanisms in alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatments. This review begins with an examination of the current state of treatment mechanisms research using clinical and social psychological approaches. It then summarizes what is currently understood about the pathophysiology of addiction from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Finally, it reviews recent efforts to use cognitive neuroscience approaches to understand the neural mechanisms of behavior change in AUD, including studies that use neural functioning to predict relapse and abstinence; studies examining neural mechanisms that operate in current evidence-based behavioral interventions for AUD; as well as research on novel behavioral interventions that are being derived from our emerging understanding of the neural and cognitive mechanisms of behavior change in AUD. The article highlights how the regulation of subcortical regions involved in alcohol incentive motivation by prefrontal cortical regions involved in cognitive control may be a core mechanism that plays a role in these varied forms of behavior change in AUD. We also lay out a multilevel framework for integrating cognitive neuroscience approaches with more traditional methods for examining AUD treatment mechanisms.

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A potential common mechanism for alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatments. A number of studies suggest that AUD treatments elicit behavior change by increasing the regulation of brain regions that mediate incentive motivation, such as the ventral striatum, by prefrontal cortical regions that mediate cognitive control. Arrows denote expected changes in specific neural, behavioral, psychophysiological and clinical outcome measures, given this hypothesized treatment mechanism. PFC = prefrontal cortex. VS = ventral striatum.
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f1-arcr-37-1-29: A potential common mechanism for alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatments. A number of studies suggest that AUD treatments elicit behavior change by increasing the regulation of brain regions that mediate incentive motivation, such as the ventral striatum, by prefrontal cortical regions that mediate cognitive control. Arrows denote expected changes in specific neural, behavioral, psychophysiological and clinical outcome measures, given this hypothesized treatment mechanism. PFC = prefrontal cortex. VS = ventral striatum.

Mentions: A theme that emerges from the disparate lines of research reviewed here is that effective treatments for AUD serve to increase prefrontal cortex function and downmodulate the function of reward systems, especially the ventral striatum. Given the role of functional interactions between the prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum in a variety of self-regulation processes (Ochsner et al. 2012), it is likely that increased functional interaction between these regions may serve as a critical behavior change mechanism that is shared by a number of different effective psychosocial treatments. In other words, findings from cognitive neuroscience predict that effective treatments increase prefrontal cortical function, decrease ventral striatal function, and increase functional connectivity between these two regions, especially during the processing of alcohol-related information (figure 1). Although a number of the studies cited here provide circumstantial evidence for this mechanism, no studies have tested it directly.


Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches to Understanding Behavior Change in Alcohol Use Disorder Treatments.

Naqvi NH, Morgenstern J - Alcohol Res (2015)

A potential common mechanism for alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatments. A number of studies suggest that AUD treatments elicit behavior change by increasing the regulation of brain regions that mediate incentive motivation, such as the ventral striatum, by prefrontal cortical regions that mediate cognitive control. Arrows denote expected changes in specific neural, behavioral, psychophysiological and clinical outcome measures, given this hypothesized treatment mechanism. PFC = prefrontal cortex. VS = ventral striatum.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4476602&req=5

f1-arcr-37-1-29: A potential common mechanism for alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatments. A number of studies suggest that AUD treatments elicit behavior change by increasing the regulation of brain regions that mediate incentive motivation, such as the ventral striatum, by prefrontal cortical regions that mediate cognitive control. Arrows denote expected changes in specific neural, behavioral, psychophysiological and clinical outcome measures, given this hypothesized treatment mechanism. PFC = prefrontal cortex. VS = ventral striatum.
Mentions: A theme that emerges from the disparate lines of research reviewed here is that effective treatments for AUD serve to increase prefrontal cortex function and downmodulate the function of reward systems, especially the ventral striatum. Given the role of functional interactions between the prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum in a variety of self-regulation processes (Ochsner et al. 2012), it is likely that increased functional interaction between these regions may serve as a critical behavior change mechanism that is shared by a number of different effective psychosocial treatments. In other words, findings from cognitive neuroscience predict that effective treatments increase prefrontal cortical function, decrease ventral striatal function, and increase functional connectivity between these two regions, especially during the processing of alcohol-related information (figure 1). Although a number of the studies cited here provide circumstantial evidence for this mechanism, no studies have tested it directly.

Bottom Line: It then summarizes what is currently understood about the pathophysiology of addiction from a cognitive neuroscience perspective.The article highlights how the regulation of subcortical regions involved in alcohol incentive motivation by prefrontal cortical regions involved in cognitive control may be a core mechanism that plays a role in these varied forms of behavior change in AUD.We also lay out a multilevel framework for integrating cognitive neuroscience approaches with more traditional methods for examining AUD treatment mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division on Substance Abuse, Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, New York.

ABSTRACT
Researchers have begun to apply cognitive neuroscience concepts and methods to study behavior change mechanisms in alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatments. This review begins with an examination of the current state of treatment mechanisms research using clinical and social psychological approaches. It then summarizes what is currently understood about the pathophysiology of addiction from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Finally, it reviews recent efforts to use cognitive neuroscience approaches to understand the neural mechanisms of behavior change in AUD, including studies that use neural functioning to predict relapse and abstinence; studies examining neural mechanisms that operate in current evidence-based behavioral interventions for AUD; as well as research on novel behavioral interventions that are being derived from our emerging understanding of the neural and cognitive mechanisms of behavior change in AUD. The article highlights how the regulation of subcortical regions involved in alcohol incentive motivation by prefrontal cortical regions involved in cognitive control may be a core mechanism that plays a role in these varied forms of behavior change in AUD. We also lay out a multilevel framework for integrating cognitive neuroscience approaches with more traditional methods for examining AUD treatment mechanisms.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus