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Neuroplasticity in Human Alcoholism: Studies of Extended Abstinence with Potential Treatment Implications.

Fein G, Cardenas VA - Alcohol Res (2015)

Bottom Line: Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences.This impulsive and compulsive behavior may be related to functional abnormalities within networks of brain regions responsible for how we make decisions.The abnormalities may result in strengthened networks related to appetitive drive-or the need to fulfill desires-and simultaneously weakened networks that exercise control over behaviors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neurobehavioral Research, Inc., Honolulu, Hawaii.

ABSTRACT
Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences. This impulsive and compulsive behavior may be related to functional abnormalities within networks of brain regions responsible for how we make decisions. The abnormalities may result in strengthened networks related to appetitive drive-or the need to fulfill desires-and simultaneously weakened networks that exercise control over behaviors. Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in abstinent alcoholics suggest that abstinence is associated with changes in the tone of such networks, decreasing resting tone in appetitive drive networks, and increasing resting tone in inhibitory control networks to support continued abstinence. Identifying electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of resting tone in these networks initially identified using fMRI, and establishing in longitudinal studies that these abstinence-related changes in network tone are progressive would motivate treatment initiatives to facilitate these changes in network tone, thereby supporting successful ongoing abstinence.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Locations of brain regions involved in executive control and appetitive drive. (A) Front Brain View: A frontal image of the brain showing internal structures involved in appetitive drive and in both appetitive drive and executive control networks. Though spread far apart in the brain’s anatomy, the regions (shown here and in the other two brain illustrations) operate in concert to form these networks. (B) Side Brain View: A side view of the brain showing internal structures and locations of regions associated with either executive control or appetitive drive or, in many cases, with both networks. (C) External Brain View: An external view of the brain showing regions associated with the appetitive drive and executive control networks.
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f4-arcr-37-1-125: Locations of brain regions involved in executive control and appetitive drive. (A) Front Brain View: A frontal image of the brain showing internal structures involved in appetitive drive and in both appetitive drive and executive control networks. Though spread far apart in the brain’s anatomy, the regions (shown here and in the other two brain illustrations) operate in concert to form these networks. (B) Side Brain View: A side view of the brain showing internal structures and locations of regions associated with either executive control or appetitive drive or, in many cases, with both networks. (C) External Brain View: An external view of the brain showing regions associated with the appetitive drive and executive control networks.


Neuroplasticity in Human Alcoholism: Studies of Extended Abstinence with Potential Treatment Implications.

Fein G, Cardenas VA - Alcohol Res (2015)

Locations of brain regions involved in executive control and appetitive drive. (A) Front Brain View: A frontal image of the brain showing internal structures involved in appetitive drive and in both appetitive drive and executive control networks. Though spread far apart in the brain’s anatomy, the regions (shown here and in the other two brain illustrations) operate in concert to form these networks. (B) Side Brain View: A side view of the brain showing internal structures and locations of regions associated with either executive control or appetitive drive or, in many cases, with both networks. (C) External Brain View: An external view of the brain showing regions associated with the appetitive drive and executive control networks.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4476599&req=5

f4-arcr-37-1-125: Locations of brain regions involved in executive control and appetitive drive. (A) Front Brain View: A frontal image of the brain showing internal structures involved in appetitive drive and in both appetitive drive and executive control networks. Though spread far apart in the brain’s anatomy, the regions (shown here and in the other two brain illustrations) operate in concert to form these networks. (B) Side Brain View: A side view of the brain showing internal structures and locations of regions associated with either executive control or appetitive drive or, in many cases, with both networks. (C) External Brain View: An external view of the brain showing regions associated with the appetitive drive and executive control networks.
Bottom Line: Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences.This impulsive and compulsive behavior may be related to functional abnormalities within networks of brain regions responsible for how we make decisions.The abnormalities may result in strengthened networks related to appetitive drive-or the need to fulfill desires-and simultaneously weakened networks that exercise control over behaviors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neurobehavioral Research, Inc., Honolulu, Hawaii.

ABSTRACT
Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences. This impulsive and compulsive behavior may be related to functional abnormalities within networks of brain regions responsible for how we make decisions. The abnormalities may result in strengthened networks related to appetitive drive-or the need to fulfill desires-and simultaneously weakened networks that exercise control over behaviors. Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in abstinent alcoholics suggest that abstinence is associated with changes in the tone of such networks, decreasing resting tone in appetitive drive networks, and increasing resting tone in inhibitory control networks to support continued abstinence. Identifying electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of resting tone in these networks initially identified using fMRI, and establishing in longitudinal studies that these abstinence-related changes in network tone are progressive would motivate treatment initiatives to facilitate these changes in network tone, thereby supporting successful ongoing abstinence.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus