Limits...
Neuroplasticity in Human Alcoholism: Studies of Extended Abstinence with Potential Treatment Implications.

Fein G, Cardenas VA - Alcohol Res (2015)

Bottom Line: Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences.This impulsive and compulsive behavior may be related to functional abnormalities within networks of brain regions responsible for how we make decisions.The abnormalities may result in strengthened networks related to appetitive drive-or the need to fulfill desires-and simultaneously weakened networks that exercise control over behaviors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neurobehavioral Research, Inc., Honolulu, Hawaii.

ABSTRACT
Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences. This impulsive and compulsive behavior may be related to functional abnormalities within networks of brain regions responsible for how we make decisions. The abnormalities may result in strengthened networks related to appetitive drive-or the need to fulfill desires-and simultaneously weakened networks that exercise control over behaviors. Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in abstinent alcoholics suggest that abstinence is associated with changes in the tone of such networks, decreasing resting tone in appetitive drive networks, and increasing resting tone in inhibitory control networks to support continued abstinence. Identifying electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of resting tone in these networks initially identified using fMRI, and establishing in longitudinal studies that these abstinence-related changes in network tone are progressive would motivate treatment initiatives to facilitate these changes in network tone, thereby supporting successful ongoing abstinence.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Alcohol-cue Stroop task. During the fixation (Fix) blocks, subjects keep their eyes fixated on the cross. During the neutral (Neu) and alcohol (Alc) blocks, subjects are instructed to keep looking at the fixation cross in the middle, while they notice the color of the picture’s border, and respond by pressing the corresponding colored button on the response pad.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4476599&req=5

f3-arcr-37-1-125: Alcohol-cue Stroop task. During the fixation (Fix) blocks, subjects keep their eyes fixated on the cross. During the neutral (Neu) and alcohol (Alc) blocks, subjects are instructed to keep looking at the fixation cross in the middle, while they notice the color of the picture’s border, and respond by pressing the corresponding colored button on the response pad.

Mentions: Jazmin Camchong developed an alcohol-cue analog of this task (see figure 3). In a pilot study, she tested five LTAA and two NSAC subjects who had demonstrated resting-state fMRI synchrony differences from each other. She found an alcohol-cue interference effect in LTAA subjects (i.e., longer reaction times to alcohol versus neutral cues) as well as higher synchrony of executive control regions in LTAA versus control subjects when viewing alcohol cues. These pilot results suggest that synchrony within the executive control network is higher in LTAA subjects both at rest and during task performance.


Neuroplasticity in Human Alcoholism: Studies of Extended Abstinence with Potential Treatment Implications.

Fein G, Cardenas VA - Alcohol Res (2015)

Alcohol-cue Stroop task. During the fixation (Fix) blocks, subjects keep their eyes fixated on the cross. During the neutral (Neu) and alcohol (Alc) blocks, subjects are instructed to keep looking at the fixation cross in the middle, while they notice the color of the picture’s border, and respond by pressing the corresponding colored button on the response pad.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4476599&req=5

f3-arcr-37-1-125: Alcohol-cue Stroop task. During the fixation (Fix) blocks, subjects keep their eyes fixated on the cross. During the neutral (Neu) and alcohol (Alc) blocks, subjects are instructed to keep looking at the fixation cross in the middle, while they notice the color of the picture’s border, and respond by pressing the corresponding colored button on the response pad.
Mentions: Jazmin Camchong developed an alcohol-cue analog of this task (see figure 3). In a pilot study, she tested five LTAA and two NSAC subjects who had demonstrated resting-state fMRI synchrony differences from each other. She found an alcohol-cue interference effect in LTAA subjects (i.e., longer reaction times to alcohol versus neutral cues) as well as higher synchrony of executive control regions in LTAA versus control subjects when viewing alcohol cues. These pilot results suggest that synchrony within the executive control network is higher in LTAA subjects both at rest and during task performance.

Bottom Line: Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences.This impulsive and compulsive behavior may be related to functional abnormalities within networks of brain regions responsible for how we make decisions.The abnormalities may result in strengthened networks related to appetitive drive-or the need to fulfill desires-and simultaneously weakened networks that exercise control over behaviors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neurobehavioral Research, Inc., Honolulu, Hawaii.

ABSTRACT
Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences. This impulsive and compulsive behavior may be related to functional abnormalities within networks of brain regions responsible for how we make decisions. The abnormalities may result in strengthened networks related to appetitive drive-or the need to fulfill desires-and simultaneously weakened networks that exercise control over behaviors. Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in abstinent alcoholics suggest that abstinence is associated with changes in the tone of such networks, decreasing resting tone in appetitive drive networks, and increasing resting tone in inhibitory control networks to support continued abstinence. Identifying electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of resting tone in these networks initially identified using fMRI, and establishing in longitudinal studies that these abstinence-related changes in network tone are progressive would motivate treatment initiatives to facilitate these changes in network tone, thereby supporting successful ongoing abstinence.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus