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Neuroplasticity in Human Alcoholism: Studies of Extended Abstinence with Potential Treatment Implications.

Fein G, Cardenas VA - Alcohol Res (2015)

Bottom Line: Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences.This impulsive and compulsive behavior may be related to functional abnormalities within networks of brain regions responsible for how we make decisions.The abnormalities may result in strengthened networks related to appetitive drive-or the need to fulfill desires-and simultaneously weakened networks that exercise control over behaviors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neurobehavioral Research, Inc., Honolulu, Hawaii.

ABSTRACT
Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences. This impulsive and compulsive behavior may be related to functional abnormalities within networks of brain regions responsible for how we make decisions. The abnormalities may result in strengthened networks related to appetitive drive-or the need to fulfill desires-and simultaneously weakened networks that exercise control over behaviors. Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in abstinent alcoholics suggest that abstinence is associated with changes in the tone of such networks, decreasing resting tone in appetitive drive networks, and increasing resting tone in inhibitory control networks to support continued abstinence. Identifying electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of resting tone in these networks initially identified using fMRI, and establishing in longitudinal studies that these abstinence-related changes in network tone are progressive would motivate treatment initiatives to facilitate these changes in network tone, thereby supporting successful ongoing abstinence.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

fMRI resting-state synchrony within the appetitive drive network is shown. (A) The voxels with activity synchronous to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) seeds are overlaid in red/yellow. These regions of the thalamus and caudate are crucial in bottom-up appetitive drive. (B) The average Z-scores indexing synchrony between the SgACC and NAcc seeds and the colored regions shown in the left panel are shown for non–substance-abusing control subjects (NSAC), short-term abstinent alcoholics (STAA), long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAA), and stimulus-dependent long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAAS). The LTAA show significantly less synchrony than NSAC, STAA, and LTAAS, with STAA and LTAAS synchrony midway between NSAC and LTAA.
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f1-arcr-37-1-125: fMRI resting-state synchrony within the appetitive drive network is shown. (A) The voxels with activity synchronous to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) seeds are overlaid in red/yellow. These regions of the thalamus and caudate are crucial in bottom-up appetitive drive. (B) The average Z-scores indexing synchrony between the SgACC and NAcc seeds and the colored regions shown in the left panel are shown for non–substance-abusing control subjects (NSAC), short-term abstinent alcoholics (STAA), long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAA), and stimulus-dependent long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAAS). The LTAA show significantly less synchrony than NSAC, STAA, and LTAAS, with STAA and LTAAS synchrony midway between NSAC and LTAA.

Mentions: Compared with NSAC subjects, LTAA subjects showed (1) decreased synchrony of limbic reward regions (e.g., caudate and thalamus) with both bilateral NAcc and sgACC seeds (figure 1) and (2) increased synchrony of bilateral NAcc seeds with left DLPFC (suggesting greater inhibitory control) and between the sgACC seed and right DLPFC (consistent with greater emotion regulation) (figure 2). The synchrony of bilateral NAcc seeds and left DLPFC was positively correlated with IED task performance outside of the scanner, suggesting that subjects with greater synchrony in the executive control network were better able to inhibit a learned response when a new rule was introduced. Additionally, duration of abstinence in LTAA was negatively correlated with the synchrony between sgACC and right DLPFC.


Neuroplasticity in Human Alcoholism: Studies of Extended Abstinence with Potential Treatment Implications.

Fein G, Cardenas VA - Alcohol Res (2015)

fMRI resting-state synchrony within the appetitive drive network is shown. (A) The voxels with activity synchronous to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) seeds are overlaid in red/yellow. These regions of the thalamus and caudate are crucial in bottom-up appetitive drive. (B) The average Z-scores indexing synchrony between the SgACC and NAcc seeds and the colored regions shown in the left panel are shown for non–substance-abusing control subjects (NSAC), short-term abstinent alcoholics (STAA), long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAA), and stimulus-dependent long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAAS). The LTAA show significantly less synchrony than NSAC, STAA, and LTAAS, with STAA and LTAAS synchrony midway between NSAC and LTAA.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4476599&req=5

f1-arcr-37-1-125: fMRI resting-state synchrony within the appetitive drive network is shown. (A) The voxels with activity synchronous to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) seeds are overlaid in red/yellow. These regions of the thalamus and caudate are crucial in bottom-up appetitive drive. (B) The average Z-scores indexing synchrony between the SgACC and NAcc seeds and the colored regions shown in the left panel are shown for non–substance-abusing control subjects (NSAC), short-term abstinent alcoholics (STAA), long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAA), and stimulus-dependent long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAAS). The LTAA show significantly less synchrony than NSAC, STAA, and LTAAS, with STAA and LTAAS synchrony midway between NSAC and LTAA.
Mentions: Compared with NSAC subjects, LTAA subjects showed (1) decreased synchrony of limbic reward regions (e.g., caudate and thalamus) with both bilateral NAcc and sgACC seeds (figure 1) and (2) increased synchrony of bilateral NAcc seeds with left DLPFC (suggesting greater inhibitory control) and between the sgACC seed and right DLPFC (consistent with greater emotion regulation) (figure 2). The synchrony of bilateral NAcc seeds and left DLPFC was positively correlated with IED task performance outside of the scanner, suggesting that subjects with greater synchrony in the executive control network were better able to inhibit a learned response when a new rule was introduced. Additionally, duration of abstinence in LTAA was negatively correlated with the synchrony between sgACC and right DLPFC.

Bottom Line: Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences.This impulsive and compulsive behavior may be related to functional abnormalities within networks of brain regions responsible for how we make decisions.The abnormalities may result in strengthened networks related to appetitive drive-or the need to fulfill desires-and simultaneously weakened networks that exercise control over behaviors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neurobehavioral Research, Inc., Honolulu, Hawaii.

ABSTRACT
Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences. This impulsive and compulsive behavior may be related to functional abnormalities within networks of brain regions responsible for how we make decisions. The abnormalities may result in strengthened networks related to appetitive drive-or the need to fulfill desires-and simultaneously weakened networks that exercise control over behaviors. Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in abstinent alcoholics suggest that abstinence is associated with changes in the tone of such networks, decreasing resting tone in appetitive drive networks, and increasing resting tone in inhibitory control networks to support continued abstinence. Identifying electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of resting tone in these networks initially identified using fMRI, and establishing in longitudinal studies that these abstinence-related changes in network tone are progressive would motivate treatment initiatives to facilitate these changes in network tone, thereby supporting successful ongoing abstinence.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus