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Interference of Overlapping Insect Vibratory Communication Signals: An Eushistus heros Model.

Čokl A, Laumann RA, Žunič Kosi A, Blassioli-Moraes MC, Virant-Doberlet M, Borges M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The calling female pulse overlaps the male vibratory response when the latency of the latter is shorter than the duration of the female triggering signal or when the male response does not inhibit the following female pulse.Interference does not occur in overlapped narrow band female calling pulses and broadband male courtship pulse trains.In a duet with overlapped signals females and males change time parameters and increase the frequency difference between signals by changing the frequency level and frequency modulation pattern of their calls.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, National Institute of Biology, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

ABSTRACT
Plants limit the range of insect substrate-borne vibratory communication by their architecture and mechanical properties that change transmitted signal time, amplitude and frequency characteristics. Stinkbugs gain higher signal-to-noise ratio and increase communication distance by emitting narrowband low frequency vibratory signals that are tuned with transmission properties of plants. The objective of the present study was to investigate hitherto overlooked consequences of duetting with mutually overlapped narrowband vibratory signals. The overlapped vibrations of the model stinkbug species Eushistus heros, produced naturally or induced artificially on different plants, have been analysed. They represent female and male strategies to preserve information within a complex masked signal. The brown stinkbugs E. heros communicate with species and gender specific vibratory signals that constitute characteristic duets in the calling, courtship and rivalry phases of mating behaviour. The calling female pulse overlaps the male vibratory response when the latency of the latter is shorter than the duration of the female triggering signal or when the male response does not inhibit the following female pulse. Overlapping of signals induces interference that changes their amplitude pattern to a sequence of regularly repeated pulses in which their duration and the difference between frequencies of overlapped vibrations are related inversely. Interference does not occur in overlapped narrow band female calling pulses and broadband male courtship pulse trains. In a duet with overlapped signals females and males change time parameters and increase the frequency difference between signals by changing the frequency level and frequency modulation pattern of their calls.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Changes of overlapped Eushistus heros FS-1 and MS-1 pulse time and frequency characteristics.Sonograms (above) and oscillograms (below) of (a) increased FS-1 pulse duration when overlapped by MS-1 signals or (b) by 100 Hz/0.69 mm/s pure tone. c: the U-shaped FM sweep of MS-1 pulses masked by FS-1 signals. d: the increased frequency and decreased duration of MS-1 pulses in a duet with FS-1 signals.
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pone.0130775.g005: Changes of overlapped Eushistus heros FS-1 and MS-1 pulse time and frequency characteristics.Sonograms (above) and oscillograms (below) of (a) increased FS-1 pulse duration when overlapped by MS-1 signals or (b) by 100 Hz/0.69 mm/s pure tone. c: the U-shaped FM sweep of MS-1 pulses masked by FS-1 signals. d: the increased frequency and decreased duration of MS-1 pulses in a duet with FS-1 signals.

Mentions: The high variability of the FS-1 pulse repetition time and of the MS-1 pulse duration (Table 1) gives E. heros females and males the possibility of avoiding mutual overlapping by synchronization of time parameters in calling duets (Fig 1a). Outside the limited range of time parameter adaptation, signals overlap each other and induce interference, which significantly changes their amplitude modulation pattern (Fig 2). Females and males react differently to minimize the consequences of signal overlapping. Females increase pulse duration and modify the frequency modulation (FM) pattern of the prolonged signal to run in parallel with that of overlapping MS-1 pulse (Fig 5a). The same reaction was achieved by vibrating the plant with a continuous pure tone (Fig 5b): FS-1 pulse duration was increased significantly at vibration with 100, 125 and 150 Hz pure tones (Table 2). Males respond to signal overlapping by changing their FM pattern at the start of the MS-1 signal (Fig 5c) and by increasing the frequency difference between MS-1 and FS-1 pulses (Fig 5d). When FS-1 and MS-1 are overlapped by each other, males produce a characteristic U-shaped sweep of frequency decrease and increase per time (Fig 5c). The U-shaped MS-1 FM pattern was analysed in 8 different pairs and the tested parameters (Table 3) varied significantly between them (One-way ANOVA, F>3.4, df = 7, P<0.001).


Interference of Overlapping Insect Vibratory Communication Signals: An Eushistus heros Model.

Čokl A, Laumann RA, Žunič Kosi A, Blassioli-Moraes MC, Virant-Doberlet M, Borges M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Changes of overlapped Eushistus heros FS-1 and MS-1 pulse time and frequency characteristics.Sonograms (above) and oscillograms (below) of (a) increased FS-1 pulse duration when overlapped by MS-1 signals or (b) by 100 Hz/0.69 mm/s pure tone. c: the U-shaped FM sweep of MS-1 pulses masked by FS-1 signals. d: the increased frequency and decreased duration of MS-1 pulses in a duet with FS-1 signals.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4476573&req=5

pone.0130775.g005: Changes of overlapped Eushistus heros FS-1 and MS-1 pulse time and frequency characteristics.Sonograms (above) and oscillograms (below) of (a) increased FS-1 pulse duration when overlapped by MS-1 signals or (b) by 100 Hz/0.69 mm/s pure tone. c: the U-shaped FM sweep of MS-1 pulses masked by FS-1 signals. d: the increased frequency and decreased duration of MS-1 pulses in a duet with FS-1 signals.
Mentions: The high variability of the FS-1 pulse repetition time and of the MS-1 pulse duration (Table 1) gives E. heros females and males the possibility of avoiding mutual overlapping by synchronization of time parameters in calling duets (Fig 1a). Outside the limited range of time parameter adaptation, signals overlap each other and induce interference, which significantly changes their amplitude modulation pattern (Fig 2). Females and males react differently to minimize the consequences of signal overlapping. Females increase pulse duration and modify the frequency modulation (FM) pattern of the prolonged signal to run in parallel with that of overlapping MS-1 pulse (Fig 5a). The same reaction was achieved by vibrating the plant with a continuous pure tone (Fig 5b): FS-1 pulse duration was increased significantly at vibration with 100, 125 and 150 Hz pure tones (Table 2). Males respond to signal overlapping by changing their FM pattern at the start of the MS-1 signal (Fig 5c) and by increasing the frequency difference between MS-1 and FS-1 pulses (Fig 5d). When FS-1 and MS-1 are overlapped by each other, males produce a characteristic U-shaped sweep of frequency decrease and increase per time (Fig 5c). The U-shaped MS-1 FM pattern was analysed in 8 different pairs and the tested parameters (Table 3) varied significantly between them (One-way ANOVA, F>3.4, df = 7, P<0.001).

Bottom Line: The calling female pulse overlaps the male vibratory response when the latency of the latter is shorter than the duration of the female triggering signal or when the male response does not inhibit the following female pulse.Interference does not occur in overlapped narrow band female calling pulses and broadband male courtship pulse trains.In a duet with overlapped signals females and males change time parameters and increase the frequency difference between signals by changing the frequency level and frequency modulation pattern of their calls.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, National Institute of Biology, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

ABSTRACT
Plants limit the range of insect substrate-borne vibratory communication by their architecture and mechanical properties that change transmitted signal time, amplitude and frequency characteristics. Stinkbugs gain higher signal-to-noise ratio and increase communication distance by emitting narrowband low frequency vibratory signals that are tuned with transmission properties of plants. The objective of the present study was to investigate hitherto overlooked consequences of duetting with mutually overlapped narrowband vibratory signals. The overlapped vibrations of the model stinkbug species Eushistus heros, produced naturally or induced artificially on different plants, have been analysed. They represent female and male strategies to preserve information within a complex masked signal. The brown stinkbugs E. heros communicate with species and gender specific vibratory signals that constitute characteristic duets in the calling, courtship and rivalry phases of mating behaviour. The calling female pulse overlaps the male vibratory response when the latency of the latter is shorter than the duration of the female triggering signal or when the male response does not inhibit the following female pulse. Overlapping of signals induces interference that changes their amplitude pattern to a sequence of regularly repeated pulses in which their duration and the difference between frequencies of overlapped vibrations are related inversely. Interference does not occur in overlapped narrow band female calling pulses and broadband male courtship pulse trains. In a duet with overlapped signals females and males change time parameters and increase the frequency difference between signals by changing the frequency level and frequency modulation pattern of their calls.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus