Limits...
Interference of Overlapping Insect Vibratory Communication Signals: An Eushistus heros Model.

Čokl A, Laumann RA, Žunič Kosi A, Blassioli-Moraes MC, Virant-Doberlet M, Borges M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The calling female pulse overlaps the male vibratory response when the latency of the latter is shorter than the duration of the female triggering signal or when the male response does not inhibit the following female pulse.Interference does not occur in overlapped narrow band female calling pulses and broadband male courtship pulse trains.In a duet with overlapped signals females and males change time parameters and increase the frequency difference between signals by changing the frequency level and frequency modulation pattern of their calls.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, National Institute of Biology, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

ABSTRACT
Plants limit the range of insect substrate-borne vibratory communication by their architecture and mechanical properties that change transmitted signal time, amplitude and frequency characteristics. Stinkbugs gain higher signal-to-noise ratio and increase communication distance by emitting narrowband low frequency vibratory signals that are tuned with transmission properties of plants. The objective of the present study was to investigate hitherto overlooked consequences of duetting with mutually overlapped narrowband vibratory signals. The overlapped vibrations of the model stinkbug species Eushistus heros, produced naturally or induced artificially on different plants, have been analysed. They represent female and male strategies to preserve information within a complex masked signal. The brown stinkbugs E. heros communicate with species and gender specific vibratory signals that constitute characteristic duets in the calling, courtship and rivalry phases of mating behaviour. The calling female pulse overlaps the male vibratory response when the latency of the latter is shorter than the duration of the female triggering signal or when the male response does not inhibit the following female pulse. Overlapping of signals induces interference that changes their amplitude pattern to a sequence of regularly repeated pulses in which their duration and the difference between frequencies of overlapped vibrations are related inversely. Interference does not occur in overlapped narrow band female calling pulses and broadband male courtship pulse trains. In a duet with overlapped signals females and males change time parameters and increase the frequency difference between signals by changing the frequency level and frequency modulation pattern of their calls.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Naturally emitted FS-1 and MS-1 pulses overlapped by continuous pure tones.The relation between interference pulse duration and the difference between MS-1 and pure tone frequencies at different frequency and velocity levels. a,b, c: naturally emitted FS-1 and MS-1 signals overlapped by (a) 100 Hz/0.69 mm/s, (b) 125 Hz/1.13 mm/s and (c) 150 Hz/0.60 mm/s pure tones. d: mean interference pulse duration (SD<40% of the mean value, N = 3–23, n = 6) of naturally emitted MS-1 signals overlapped by 100 Hz/0.22 mm/s (black diamonds), 125 Hz/0.22 mm/s (open squares) or 150 Hz/0.22 mm/s (grey triangles) pure tone vibration. Means were determined in 1000 ms sections beginning from start to end of the MS-1 signal, e: mean pulse duration (SD<40% of the mean value, N = 3–26, n = 9) of naturally emitted MS-1 signals on soybean masked by 150 Hz/0.343–1,151 mm/s pure tone vibration. Black markers: MS-2 signals with FM decreasing from a starting dominant frequency below 150 Hz; open markers: MS-2 signals with starting frequency of FM above 150 Hz. Means were determined in 1000 ms sections beginning from the start to the end of the MS-1 signal. Time bar 5 seconds.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4476573&req=5

pone.0130775.g003: Naturally emitted FS-1 and MS-1 pulses overlapped by continuous pure tones.The relation between interference pulse duration and the difference between MS-1 and pure tone frequencies at different frequency and velocity levels. a,b, c: naturally emitted FS-1 and MS-1 signals overlapped by (a) 100 Hz/0.69 mm/s, (b) 125 Hz/1.13 mm/s and (c) 150 Hz/0.60 mm/s pure tones. d: mean interference pulse duration (SD<40% of the mean value, N = 3–23, n = 6) of naturally emitted MS-1 signals overlapped by 100 Hz/0.22 mm/s (black diamonds), 125 Hz/0.22 mm/s (open squares) or 150 Hz/0.22 mm/s (grey triangles) pure tone vibration. Means were determined in 1000 ms sections beginning from start to end of the MS-1 signal, e: mean pulse duration (SD<40% of the mean value, N = 3–26, n = 9) of naturally emitted MS-1 signals on soybean masked by 150 Hz/0.343–1,151 mm/s pure tone vibration. Black markers: MS-2 signals with FM decreasing from a starting dominant frequency below 150 Hz; open markers: MS-2 signals with starting frequency of FM above 150 Hz. Means were determined in 1000 ms sections beginning from the start to the end of the MS-1 signal. Time bar 5 seconds.

Mentions: Vibration of the plant with continuous pure tones did not change the general pattern of communication, but triggered production of MS-1 and MS-2 pulses at frequencies of 100 and 125 Hz, inducing interference with overlapped naturally emitted vibratory signals (Fig 3a–3c). The inverse relation between the duration of interference pulses and the frequency difference of masked signals did not depend either on the pure tone frequency (Fig 3d) or velocity (Fig 3e). Interference was also induced by play-back vibration of the plant by two pure tones (Fig 4a and 4b) or by one pure tone and pre-recorded MS-1 signals (Fig 4c–4e). Inverse relations between interference pulse duration and the difference between frequencies of overlapped play-back vibrations were observed on different plants (Fig 4f) and at different continuous pure tone velocities (Fig 4g). The duration of pulses induced by interference ranged in masked pure tones (Fig 4a and 4b) between 202.7 ± 7.5 ms (N = 15, n = 5) at the 6 Hz difference and 19.7 ± 0.7 ms (N = 50, n = 5) at the 50 Hz difference. A pulsed amplitude modulation (AM) pattern was not induced in overlapped pure tones of the same frequency. Interference pulse duration did not depend significantly either on the tested background pure tone frequency (one way ANOVA, F = 0.2224, df between groups = 3, df within groups = 296, P = 0.8808) or on velocities ranging from 0.2 to 1.9 mm/s.


Interference of Overlapping Insect Vibratory Communication Signals: An Eushistus heros Model.

Čokl A, Laumann RA, Žunič Kosi A, Blassioli-Moraes MC, Virant-Doberlet M, Borges M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Naturally emitted FS-1 and MS-1 pulses overlapped by continuous pure tones.The relation between interference pulse duration and the difference between MS-1 and pure tone frequencies at different frequency and velocity levels. a,b, c: naturally emitted FS-1 and MS-1 signals overlapped by (a) 100 Hz/0.69 mm/s, (b) 125 Hz/1.13 mm/s and (c) 150 Hz/0.60 mm/s pure tones. d: mean interference pulse duration (SD<40% of the mean value, N = 3–23, n = 6) of naturally emitted MS-1 signals overlapped by 100 Hz/0.22 mm/s (black diamonds), 125 Hz/0.22 mm/s (open squares) or 150 Hz/0.22 mm/s (grey triangles) pure tone vibration. Means were determined in 1000 ms sections beginning from start to end of the MS-1 signal, e: mean pulse duration (SD<40% of the mean value, N = 3–26, n = 9) of naturally emitted MS-1 signals on soybean masked by 150 Hz/0.343–1,151 mm/s pure tone vibration. Black markers: MS-2 signals with FM decreasing from a starting dominant frequency below 150 Hz; open markers: MS-2 signals with starting frequency of FM above 150 Hz. Means were determined in 1000 ms sections beginning from the start to the end of the MS-1 signal. Time bar 5 seconds.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4476573&req=5

pone.0130775.g003: Naturally emitted FS-1 and MS-1 pulses overlapped by continuous pure tones.The relation between interference pulse duration and the difference between MS-1 and pure tone frequencies at different frequency and velocity levels. a,b, c: naturally emitted FS-1 and MS-1 signals overlapped by (a) 100 Hz/0.69 mm/s, (b) 125 Hz/1.13 mm/s and (c) 150 Hz/0.60 mm/s pure tones. d: mean interference pulse duration (SD<40% of the mean value, N = 3–23, n = 6) of naturally emitted MS-1 signals overlapped by 100 Hz/0.22 mm/s (black diamonds), 125 Hz/0.22 mm/s (open squares) or 150 Hz/0.22 mm/s (grey triangles) pure tone vibration. Means were determined in 1000 ms sections beginning from start to end of the MS-1 signal, e: mean pulse duration (SD<40% of the mean value, N = 3–26, n = 9) of naturally emitted MS-1 signals on soybean masked by 150 Hz/0.343–1,151 mm/s pure tone vibration. Black markers: MS-2 signals with FM decreasing from a starting dominant frequency below 150 Hz; open markers: MS-2 signals with starting frequency of FM above 150 Hz. Means were determined in 1000 ms sections beginning from the start to the end of the MS-1 signal. Time bar 5 seconds.
Mentions: Vibration of the plant with continuous pure tones did not change the general pattern of communication, but triggered production of MS-1 and MS-2 pulses at frequencies of 100 and 125 Hz, inducing interference with overlapped naturally emitted vibratory signals (Fig 3a–3c). The inverse relation between the duration of interference pulses and the frequency difference of masked signals did not depend either on the pure tone frequency (Fig 3d) or velocity (Fig 3e). Interference was also induced by play-back vibration of the plant by two pure tones (Fig 4a and 4b) or by one pure tone and pre-recorded MS-1 signals (Fig 4c–4e). Inverse relations between interference pulse duration and the difference between frequencies of overlapped play-back vibrations were observed on different plants (Fig 4f) and at different continuous pure tone velocities (Fig 4g). The duration of pulses induced by interference ranged in masked pure tones (Fig 4a and 4b) between 202.7 ± 7.5 ms (N = 15, n = 5) at the 6 Hz difference and 19.7 ± 0.7 ms (N = 50, n = 5) at the 50 Hz difference. A pulsed amplitude modulation (AM) pattern was not induced in overlapped pure tones of the same frequency. Interference pulse duration did not depend significantly either on the tested background pure tone frequency (one way ANOVA, F = 0.2224, df between groups = 3, df within groups = 296, P = 0.8808) or on velocities ranging from 0.2 to 1.9 mm/s.

Bottom Line: The calling female pulse overlaps the male vibratory response when the latency of the latter is shorter than the duration of the female triggering signal or when the male response does not inhibit the following female pulse.Interference does not occur in overlapped narrow band female calling pulses and broadband male courtship pulse trains.In a duet with overlapped signals females and males change time parameters and increase the frequency difference between signals by changing the frequency level and frequency modulation pattern of their calls.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, National Institute of Biology, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

ABSTRACT
Plants limit the range of insect substrate-borne vibratory communication by their architecture and mechanical properties that change transmitted signal time, amplitude and frequency characteristics. Stinkbugs gain higher signal-to-noise ratio and increase communication distance by emitting narrowband low frequency vibratory signals that are tuned with transmission properties of plants. The objective of the present study was to investigate hitherto overlooked consequences of duetting with mutually overlapped narrowband vibratory signals. The overlapped vibrations of the model stinkbug species Eushistus heros, produced naturally or induced artificially on different plants, have been analysed. They represent female and male strategies to preserve information within a complex masked signal. The brown stinkbugs E. heros communicate with species and gender specific vibratory signals that constitute characteristic duets in the calling, courtship and rivalry phases of mating behaviour. The calling female pulse overlaps the male vibratory response when the latency of the latter is shorter than the duration of the female triggering signal or when the male response does not inhibit the following female pulse. Overlapping of signals induces interference that changes their amplitude pattern to a sequence of regularly repeated pulses in which their duration and the difference between frequencies of overlapped vibrations are related inversely. Interference does not occur in overlapped narrow band female calling pulses and broadband male courtship pulse trains. In a duet with overlapped signals females and males change time parameters and increase the frequency difference between signals by changing the frequency level and frequency modulation pattern of their calls.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus