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Winter Bird Assemblages in Rural and Urban Environments: A National Survey.

Tryjanowski P, Sparks TH, Biaduń W, Brauze T, Hetmański T, Martyka R, Skórka P, Indykiewicz P, Myczko Ł, Kunysz P, Kawa P, Czyż S, Czechowski P, Polakowski M, Zduniak P, Jerzak L, Janiszewski T, Goławski A, Duduś L, Nowakowski JJ, Wuczyński A, Wysocki D - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Urban development has a marked effect on the ecological and behavioural traits of many living organisms, including birds.Significantly more birds and more bird species were recorded in January compared to December.We conclude that differences between rural and urban areas in terms of winter conditions and the availability of resources are reflected in different bird communities in the two environments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Zoology, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 71C, 60-625, Poznań, Poland.

ABSTRACT
Urban development has a marked effect on the ecological and behavioural traits of many living organisms, including birds. In this paper, we analysed differences in the numbers of wintering birds between rural and urban areas in Poland. We also analysed species richness and abundance in relation to longitude, latitude, human population size, and landscape structure. All these parameters were analysed using modern statistical techniques incorporating species detectability. We counted birds in 156 squares (0.25 km2 each) in December 2012 and again in January 2013 in locations in and around 26 urban areas across Poland (in each urban area we surveyed 3 squares and 3 squares in nearby rural areas). The influence of twelve potential environmental variables on species abundance and richness was assessed with Generalized Linear Mixed Models, Principal Components and Detrended Correspondence Analyses. Totals of 72 bird species and 89,710 individual birds were recorded in this study. On average (± SE) 13.3 ± 0.3 species and 288 ± 14 individuals were recorded in each square in each survey. A formal comparison of rural and urban areas revealed that 27 species had a significant preference; 17 to rural areas and 10 to urban areas. Moreover, overall abundance in urban areas was more than double that of rural areas. There was almost a complete separation of rural and urban bird communities. Significantly more birds and more bird species were recorded in January compared to December. We conclude that differences between rural and urban areas in terms of winter conditions and the availability of resources are reflected in different bird communities in the two environments.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Location of the study areas.Location of the 26 paired areas used to study winter differences in birds between rural and urban environments in Poland.
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pone.0130299.g001: Location of the study areas.Location of the 26 paired areas used to study winter differences in birds between rural and urban environments in Poland.

Mentions: Using the same methods, we recorded wintering birds in 26 towns and cities (hereafter called urban areas), each paired with a nearby rural area, across Poland (Fig 1; for more details see S1 Table). The study areas were chosen to cover all of Poland and span the entire Polish winter climate. Within each urban and rural area there were three square plots (25 ha) where birds were surveyed. Thus, the total number of squares was 156. The distance between paired rural and urban squares was 1–12 km. The benefit of this approach is that paired rural and urban study squares were characterised, as far as is practical, by similar climatic conditions. Squares were classified as urban or rural based on two criteria which both had to be met: (1) local authority designated as urban or rural (land management and policy in cities differs from that in rural districts); (2) squares in both environments had to include built up areas. For example, squares consisting only of arable land in urban local authorities were not considered. On average, each observer surveyed 1.81 ± 0.17 SE paired areas (range: 1–3), and all paired squares (urban-rural) were always visited by the same observer.


Winter Bird Assemblages in Rural and Urban Environments: A National Survey.

Tryjanowski P, Sparks TH, Biaduń W, Brauze T, Hetmański T, Martyka R, Skórka P, Indykiewicz P, Myczko Ł, Kunysz P, Kawa P, Czyż S, Czechowski P, Polakowski M, Zduniak P, Jerzak L, Janiszewski T, Goławski A, Duduś L, Nowakowski JJ, Wuczyński A, Wysocki D - PLoS ONE (2015)

Location of the study areas.Location of the 26 paired areas used to study winter differences in birds between rural and urban environments in Poland.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4472663&req=5

pone.0130299.g001: Location of the study areas.Location of the 26 paired areas used to study winter differences in birds between rural and urban environments in Poland.
Mentions: Using the same methods, we recorded wintering birds in 26 towns and cities (hereafter called urban areas), each paired with a nearby rural area, across Poland (Fig 1; for more details see S1 Table). The study areas were chosen to cover all of Poland and span the entire Polish winter climate. Within each urban and rural area there were three square plots (25 ha) where birds were surveyed. Thus, the total number of squares was 156. The distance between paired rural and urban squares was 1–12 km. The benefit of this approach is that paired rural and urban study squares were characterised, as far as is practical, by similar climatic conditions. Squares were classified as urban or rural based on two criteria which both had to be met: (1) local authority designated as urban or rural (land management and policy in cities differs from that in rural districts); (2) squares in both environments had to include built up areas. For example, squares consisting only of arable land in urban local authorities were not considered. On average, each observer surveyed 1.81 ± 0.17 SE paired areas (range: 1–3), and all paired squares (urban-rural) were always visited by the same observer.

Bottom Line: Urban development has a marked effect on the ecological and behavioural traits of many living organisms, including birds.Significantly more birds and more bird species were recorded in January compared to December.We conclude that differences between rural and urban areas in terms of winter conditions and the availability of resources are reflected in different bird communities in the two environments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Zoology, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 71C, 60-625, Poznań, Poland.

ABSTRACT
Urban development has a marked effect on the ecological and behavioural traits of many living organisms, including birds. In this paper, we analysed differences in the numbers of wintering birds between rural and urban areas in Poland. We also analysed species richness and abundance in relation to longitude, latitude, human population size, and landscape structure. All these parameters were analysed using modern statistical techniques incorporating species detectability. We counted birds in 156 squares (0.25 km2 each) in December 2012 and again in January 2013 in locations in and around 26 urban areas across Poland (in each urban area we surveyed 3 squares and 3 squares in nearby rural areas). The influence of twelve potential environmental variables on species abundance and richness was assessed with Generalized Linear Mixed Models, Principal Components and Detrended Correspondence Analyses. Totals of 72 bird species and 89,710 individual birds were recorded in this study. On average (± SE) 13.3 ± 0.3 species and 288 ± 14 individuals were recorded in each square in each survey. A formal comparison of rural and urban areas revealed that 27 species had a significant preference; 17 to rural areas and 10 to urban areas. Moreover, overall abundance in urban areas was more than double that of rural areas. There was almost a complete separation of rural and urban bird communities. Significantly more birds and more bird species were recorded in January compared to December. We conclude that differences between rural and urban areas in terms of winter conditions and the availability of resources are reflected in different bird communities in the two environments.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus