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Production objectives and breeding practices of urban goat and sheep keepers in West Africa: regional analysis and implications for the development of supportive breeding programs.

Dossa LH, Sangaré M, Buerkert A, Schlecht E - Springerplus (2015)

Bottom Line: The relative importance given by respondents to the different functions varied significantly (p < 0.001) across cities and between species within a city.However, irrespective of city, both species were primarily kept for their financial functions whereby sheep were perceived as having higher economic value.Although breeding practices were very similar in many respects (low practice of castration, culling and replacement strategies, uncontrolled mating, no record keeping and selection criteria), the emphasis put on each selection criteria varied across cities and between species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Animal Husbandry in the Tropics and Subtropics, University of Kassel and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Steinstrasse 19, 37213 Witzenhausen, Germany ; Centre International de Recherche-Développement sur l'Elevage en Zone Subhumide (CIRDES), Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso ; Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques, Université d'Abomey-Calavi, 03 BP 2819 Jericho, Cotonou, République du Bénin.

ABSTRACT
To better understand the relative importance of the multi-purpose functions of small ruminants for their urban owners and related breeding practices including selection criteria, we undertook a comparative analysis across the West African cities of Kano (Nigeria), Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) and Sikasso (Mali). Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect the required information from 301 sheep farmers (100, 102 and 99 in Kano, Bobo Dioulasso and Sikasso) and 306 goat farmers (100, 99 and 107 in Kano, Bobo Dioulasso and Sikasso). Sheep and goats were kept for a variety of reasons including income generation, insurance (sale for cash to meet unexpected expenditures) and economic security (sale for cash to support foreseeable expenses), social/religious functions and prestige in ownership. The relative importance given by respondents to the different functions varied significantly (p < 0.001) across cities and between species within a city. However, irrespective of city, both species were primarily kept for their financial functions whereby sheep were perceived as having higher economic value. Although breeding practices were very similar in many respects (low practice of castration, culling and replacement strategies, uncontrolled mating, no record keeping and selection criteria), the emphasis put on each selection criteria varied across cities and between species. Irrespective of city, most of the goats were of the indigenous type while keeping crossbred animals and/or maintaining more than one genotype in the same flock was more commonly practiced by sheep keepers. This points to a higher motivation for strategic breeding among sheep than goat keepers and indicates that the former might be interested in joining carefully designed participatory flock improvement programs.

No MeSH data available.


Between species comparison of preference rankings of individual traits used to select replacing breeding males in the three West African cities of Kano (Nigeria), Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) and Sikasso (Mali).
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Fig3: Between species comparison of preference rankings of individual traits used to select replacing breeding males in the three West African cities of Kano (Nigeria), Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) and Sikasso (Mali).

Mentions: Irrespective of city and species, all replacing breeding females originated from within the respective flock. Replacement of breeding males from their own flock was practiced by a significantly (p < 0.001) higher proportion of farmers in Sikasso (97 and 100% for sheep and goats, respectively) than in Bobo Dioulasso (70 and 77%) and in Kano (48 and 73%). When selecting a female for replacement, sheep and goat keepers considered both the individual’s own characteristics and the characteristics of the individual’s mother (all sheep and goat keepers in Sikasso against 97 and 92%, respectively, in Kano, and 89 and 95%, respectively, in Bobo Dioulasso). Criteria applied when selecting breeding females on the basis of their own characteristics are summarized in Table 4. In all locations and irrespective of species, the apparent health status of the animal was ranked first or second. For both species, general body conformation was significantly (p < 0.001) more important in Kano than in the two other cities. Coat color, which is an esthetic characteristic, was only ranked high in Sikasso, whereas breed was seen as an important characteristic only in Bobo Dioulasso. Temperament and tolerance to drought were also mentioned as selection criteria, but were ranked relatively low in all cities and for both species. Within city, there were also significant differences between species for the importance attached to some criteria (Figure 2). In all three cities, big body size was ranked significantly (p < 0.05) higher for sheep than for goats. Similarly, in Sikasso and Kano, resistance to diseases/parasites was ranked significantly (p < 0.001) higher for goats than for sheep. Mother’s fertility was the most frequently reported trait for sheep in all three locations (93% in Kano, 58.8% in Bobo Dioulasso and 94% in Sikasso) and for goats in Kano (90%) and Bobo Dioulasso (67%), whereas the large majority of goats farmers (92%) in Sikasso selected on the basis of the mother’s ability to resist to diseases and parasites. Irrespective of city, this trait was mentioned by significantly (p < 0.001) higher proportions of goat farmers (64% in Kano, 52% in Bobo Dioulasso and 92% in Sikasso) than of sheep keepers (30% in Kano, 45% in Bobo Dioulasso and only 17% in Sikasso). Mother’s prolificacy was equally important for selecting sheep and goats for breeding purposes in Kano, and was the second most reported trait after mother’s fertility. It was mentioned by significantly (p < 0.001) higher proportions of goat than of sheep farmers in the two other cities (61% against 35% of sheep farmers in Bobo Dioulasso, and 77% against 43% in Sikasso). Mother’s docility/temperament was also mentioned in Kano (18% of sheep and 23% of goat farmers) and Bobo Dioulasso (39% of sheep and 29% of goat farmers), whereas its breed and coat color were mentioned in Kano only by few respondents (11% of sheep farmers for both traits against 13% and 6% of goat farmers, respectively, for mother’s breed and coat colour). Irrespective of city and species, the majority of respondents (97%) reported that they do select males for breeding purposes. Ranking of criteria used to select replacing rams and bucks varied significantly (p < 0.05) across cities (Table 5). Most important criteria of sheep farmers were related to physical appearance: Big body size ranked first in Kano, followed by good apparent health and body conformation. High libido, which is a behavioral trait, ranked highest in Bobo Dioulasso, followed by good apparent health status and body size, whereas in Sikasso good apparent health status ranked first and was followed by coat color and body size. Goat farmers reported highest preference for good body conformation in Kano, for high libido in Bobo Dioulasso and for resistance to disease and parasites in Sikasso. With the exception of Bobo Dioulasso, ranks attributed to most preferred traits significantly differed (p < 0.05) between both species (Figure 3). Irrespective of species, coat colour was ranked high in Sikasso, but was unimportant in Kano and Bobo Dioulasso. Similarly, breed was important in Bobo Dioulasso, but unimportant in Kano and Sikasso.Table 4


Production objectives and breeding practices of urban goat and sheep keepers in West Africa: regional analysis and implications for the development of supportive breeding programs.

Dossa LH, Sangaré M, Buerkert A, Schlecht E - Springerplus (2015)

Between species comparison of preference rankings of individual traits used to select replacing breeding males in the three West African cities of Kano (Nigeria), Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) and Sikasso (Mali).
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4472656&req=5

Fig3: Between species comparison of preference rankings of individual traits used to select replacing breeding males in the three West African cities of Kano (Nigeria), Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) and Sikasso (Mali).
Mentions: Irrespective of city and species, all replacing breeding females originated from within the respective flock. Replacement of breeding males from their own flock was practiced by a significantly (p < 0.001) higher proportion of farmers in Sikasso (97 and 100% for sheep and goats, respectively) than in Bobo Dioulasso (70 and 77%) and in Kano (48 and 73%). When selecting a female for replacement, sheep and goat keepers considered both the individual’s own characteristics and the characteristics of the individual’s mother (all sheep and goat keepers in Sikasso against 97 and 92%, respectively, in Kano, and 89 and 95%, respectively, in Bobo Dioulasso). Criteria applied when selecting breeding females on the basis of their own characteristics are summarized in Table 4. In all locations and irrespective of species, the apparent health status of the animal was ranked first or second. For both species, general body conformation was significantly (p < 0.001) more important in Kano than in the two other cities. Coat color, which is an esthetic characteristic, was only ranked high in Sikasso, whereas breed was seen as an important characteristic only in Bobo Dioulasso. Temperament and tolerance to drought were also mentioned as selection criteria, but were ranked relatively low in all cities and for both species. Within city, there were also significant differences between species for the importance attached to some criteria (Figure 2). In all three cities, big body size was ranked significantly (p < 0.05) higher for sheep than for goats. Similarly, in Sikasso and Kano, resistance to diseases/parasites was ranked significantly (p < 0.001) higher for goats than for sheep. Mother’s fertility was the most frequently reported trait for sheep in all three locations (93% in Kano, 58.8% in Bobo Dioulasso and 94% in Sikasso) and for goats in Kano (90%) and Bobo Dioulasso (67%), whereas the large majority of goats farmers (92%) in Sikasso selected on the basis of the mother’s ability to resist to diseases and parasites. Irrespective of city, this trait was mentioned by significantly (p < 0.001) higher proportions of goat farmers (64% in Kano, 52% in Bobo Dioulasso and 92% in Sikasso) than of sheep keepers (30% in Kano, 45% in Bobo Dioulasso and only 17% in Sikasso). Mother’s prolificacy was equally important for selecting sheep and goats for breeding purposes in Kano, and was the second most reported trait after mother’s fertility. It was mentioned by significantly (p < 0.001) higher proportions of goat than of sheep farmers in the two other cities (61% against 35% of sheep farmers in Bobo Dioulasso, and 77% against 43% in Sikasso). Mother’s docility/temperament was also mentioned in Kano (18% of sheep and 23% of goat farmers) and Bobo Dioulasso (39% of sheep and 29% of goat farmers), whereas its breed and coat color were mentioned in Kano only by few respondents (11% of sheep farmers for both traits against 13% and 6% of goat farmers, respectively, for mother’s breed and coat colour). Irrespective of city and species, the majority of respondents (97%) reported that they do select males for breeding purposes. Ranking of criteria used to select replacing rams and bucks varied significantly (p < 0.05) across cities (Table 5). Most important criteria of sheep farmers were related to physical appearance: Big body size ranked first in Kano, followed by good apparent health and body conformation. High libido, which is a behavioral trait, ranked highest in Bobo Dioulasso, followed by good apparent health status and body size, whereas in Sikasso good apparent health status ranked first and was followed by coat color and body size. Goat farmers reported highest preference for good body conformation in Kano, for high libido in Bobo Dioulasso and for resistance to disease and parasites in Sikasso. With the exception of Bobo Dioulasso, ranks attributed to most preferred traits significantly differed (p < 0.05) between both species (Figure 3). Irrespective of species, coat colour was ranked high in Sikasso, but was unimportant in Kano and Bobo Dioulasso. Similarly, breed was important in Bobo Dioulasso, but unimportant in Kano and Sikasso.Table 4

Bottom Line: The relative importance given by respondents to the different functions varied significantly (p < 0.001) across cities and between species within a city.However, irrespective of city, both species were primarily kept for their financial functions whereby sheep were perceived as having higher economic value.Although breeding practices were very similar in many respects (low practice of castration, culling and replacement strategies, uncontrolled mating, no record keeping and selection criteria), the emphasis put on each selection criteria varied across cities and between species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Animal Husbandry in the Tropics and Subtropics, University of Kassel and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Steinstrasse 19, 37213 Witzenhausen, Germany ; Centre International de Recherche-Développement sur l'Elevage en Zone Subhumide (CIRDES), Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso ; Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques, Université d'Abomey-Calavi, 03 BP 2819 Jericho, Cotonou, République du Bénin.

ABSTRACT
To better understand the relative importance of the multi-purpose functions of small ruminants for their urban owners and related breeding practices including selection criteria, we undertook a comparative analysis across the West African cities of Kano (Nigeria), Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) and Sikasso (Mali). Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect the required information from 301 sheep farmers (100, 102 and 99 in Kano, Bobo Dioulasso and Sikasso) and 306 goat farmers (100, 99 and 107 in Kano, Bobo Dioulasso and Sikasso). Sheep and goats were kept for a variety of reasons including income generation, insurance (sale for cash to meet unexpected expenditures) and economic security (sale for cash to support foreseeable expenses), social/religious functions and prestige in ownership. The relative importance given by respondents to the different functions varied significantly (p < 0.001) across cities and between species within a city. However, irrespective of city, both species were primarily kept for their financial functions whereby sheep were perceived as having higher economic value. Although breeding practices were very similar in many respects (low practice of castration, culling and replacement strategies, uncontrolled mating, no record keeping and selection criteria), the emphasis put on each selection criteria varied across cities and between species. Irrespective of city, most of the goats were of the indigenous type while keeping crossbred animals and/or maintaining more than one genotype in the same flock was more commonly practiced by sheep keepers. This points to a higher motivation for strategic breeding among sheep than goat keepers and indicates that the former might be interested in joining carefully designed participatory flock improvement programs.

No MeSH data available.