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Pathology in Captive Wild Felids at German Zoological Gardens.

Junginger J, Hansmann F, Herder V, Lehmbecker A, Peters M, Beyerbach M, Wohlsein P, Baumgärtner W - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: One tiger exhibited degenerative white matter changes consistent with an entity termed large felid leukoencephalomyelopathy.Various hyperplastic, degenerative and inflammatory changes with minor clinical significance were found in several organs.Summarized, renal lesions followed by neoplastic changes as well as inflammatory changes in lung and gastrointestinal tract represent the most frequent findings in captive wild felids living in German zoological gardens.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Lower Saxony, Germany.

ABSTRACT
This retrospective study provides an overview on spontaneous diseases occurring in 38 captive wild felids submitted for necropsy by German zoological gardens between 2004 and 2013. Species included 18 tigers, 8 leopards, 7 lions, 3 cheetahs and 2 cougars with an age ranging from 0.5 to 22 years. Renal lesions, predominantly tubular alterations (intra-tubular concrements, tubular degeneration, necrosis, intra-tubular cellular debris, proteinaceous casts, dilated tubuli) followed by interstitial (lympho-plasmacytic inflammation, fibrosis, metastatic-suppurative inflammation, eosinophilic inflammation) and glomerular lesions (glomerulonephritis, glomerulosclerosis, amyloidosis) were detected in 33 out of 38 animals (87%). Tumors were found in 19 of 38 felids (50%) with 12 animals showing more than one neoplasm. The tumor prevalence increased with age. Neoplasms originated from endocrine (11), genital (8), lympho-hematopoietic (5) and alimentary organs (4) as well as the mesothelium (3). Most common neoplasms comprised uterine/ovarian leiomyomas (5/2), thyroid adenomas/adenocarcinoma (5/1), pleural mesotheliomas (3), hemangiosarcomas (2) and glossal papillomas (2). Inflammatory changes were frequently encountered in the intestine and the lung. Two young animals displayed metastatic mineralization suggestive of a vitamin D- or calcium intoxication. One tiger exhibited degenerative white matter changes consistent with an entity termed large felid leukoencephalomyelopathy. Various hyperplastic, degenerative and inflammatory changes with minor clinical significance were found in several organs. Summarized, renal lesions followed by neoplastic changes as well as inflammatory changes in lung and gastrointestinal tract represent the most frequent findings in captive wild felids living in German zoological gardens.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Endocrine and genital neoplasia in wild felids.A) Adrenal gland, tiger, 19 years, male (animal no 27). Unilateral pheochromocytoma (asterisk). B) Parathyroid gland, leopard, 9 years, female (animal no. 7). Parathyroid gland adenoma characterized by a solid growth pattern. The parathyroid gland adenoma displayed a capsule and compresses adjacent normal follicles of the thyroid gland (asterisk). H&E-staining. C) Ovary, leopard, 17 years, female (animal no. 13). The left part of the picture shows an encapsulated, well demarcated leiomyoma (L) attached to normal ovary tissue (asterisk). The right part of the picture demonstrates the firm, nodular cut surface of the leiomyoma (L) that is characterized by irregularly arranged interwoven tissue bundles.
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pone.0130573.g003: Endocrine and genital neoplasia in wild felids.A) Adrenal gland, tiger, 19 years, male (animal no 27). Unilateral pheochromocytoma (asterisk). B) Parathyroid gland, leopard, 9 years, female (animal no. 7). Parathyroid gland adenoma characterized by a solid growth pattern. The parathyroid gland adenoma displayed a capsule and compresses adjacent normal follicles of the thyroid gland (asterisk). H&E-staining. C) Ovary, leopard, 17 years, female (animal no. 13). The left part of the picture shows an encapsulated, well demarcated leiomyoma (L) attached to normal ovary tissue (asterisk). The right part of the picture demonstrates the firm, nodular cut surface of the leiomyoma (L) that is characterized by irregularly arranged interwoven tissue bundles.

Mentions: Endocrine organs were most commonly affected by neoplasms (11/34 tumors; 32%). Thyroid tumors including adenomas (n = 5) and a carcinoma (n = 1) represented the second most common neoplasms detected in captive wild felids (6/34 tumors; 18%; age ranged from 18 to 22 years with median age of 19 years) and the risk was significantly increasing with age (OR = 3.65, p < 0.0001). Affected animals were in a poor (n = 1), moderate (n = 1) or good (n = 4) body condition. A pancreatic islet cell tumor was present in a female leopard (animal no. 13), and there was a neuroendocrine tumor in the abdominal cavity of a male leopard (animal no. 8) that was assumed to be a pancreatic islet cell tumor, too (n = 2). A pituitary carcinoma (n = 1) and a pheochromocytoma (n = 1; Fig 3A) were present. Parathyroid hyperplasia (animal no. 25) or adenoma (animal no. 7; Fig 3B) were found in 2 animals. In addition, these animals showed an associated interstitial nephritis. In these cases metastatic mineralization was present in kidneys, lung, meninges and blood vessels of the hippocampus while the bones appeared unremarkable (see chapter metastatic mineralization).


Pathology in Captive Wild Felids at German Zoological Gardens.

Junginger J, Hansmann F, Herder V, Lehmbecker A, Peters M, Beyerbach M, Wohlsein P, Baumgärtner W - PLoS ONE (2015)

Endocrine and genital neoplasia in wild felids.A) Adrenal gland, tiger, 19 years, male (animal no 27). Unilateral pheochromocytoma (asterisk). B) Parathyroid gland, leopard, 9 years, female (animal no. 7). Parathyroid gland adenoma characterized by a solid growth pattern. The parathyroid gland adenoma displayed a capsule and compresses adjacent normal follicles of the thyroid gland (asterisk). H&E-staining. C) Ovary, leopard, 17 years, female (animal no. 13). The left part of the picture shows an encapsulated, well demarcated leiomyoma (L) attached to normal ovary tissue (asterisk). The right part of the picture demonstrates the firm, nodular cut surface of the leiomyoma (L) that is characterized by irregularly arranged interwoven tissue bundles.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4472349&req=5

pone.0130573.g003: Endocrine and genital neoplasia in wild felids.A) Adrenal gland, tiger, 19 years, male (animal no 27). Unilateral pheochromocytoma (asterisk). B) Parathyroid gland, leopard, 9 years, female (animal no. 7). Parathyroid gland adenoma characterized by a solid growth pattern. The parathyroid gland adenoma displayed a capsule and compresses adjacent normal follicles of the thyroid gland (asterisk). H&E-staining. C) Ovary, leopard, 17 years, female (animal no. 13). The left part of the picture shows an encapsulated, well demarcated leiomyoma (L) attached to normal ovary tissue (asterisk). The right part of the picture demonstrates the firm, nodular cut surface of the leiomyoma (L) that is characterized by irregularly arranged interwoven tissue bundles.
Mentions: Endocrine organs were most commonly affected by neoplasms (11/34 tumors; 32%). Thyroid tumors including adenomas (n = 5) and a carcinoma (n = 1) represented the second most common neoplasms detected in captive wild felids (6/34 tumors; 18%; age ranged from 18 to 22 years with median age of 19 years) and the risk was significantly increasing with age (OR = 3.65, p < 0.0001). Affected animals were in a poor (n = 1), moderate (n = 1) or good (n = 4) body condition. A pancreatic islet cell tumor was present in a female leopard (animal no. 13), and there was a neuroendocrine tumor in the abdominal cavity of a male leopard (animal no. 8) that was assumed to be a pancreatic islet cell tumor, too (n = 2). A pituitary carcinoma (n = 1) and a pheochromocytoma (n = 1; Fig 3A) were present. Parathyroid hyperplasia (animal no. 25) or adenoma (animal no. 7; Fig 3B) were found in 2 animals. In addition, these animals showed an associated interstitial nephritis. In these cases metastatic mineralization was present in kidneys, lung, meninges and blood vessels of the hippocampus while the bones appeared unremarkable (see chapter metastatic mineralization).

Bottom Line: One tiger exhibited degenerative white matter changes consistent with an entity termed large felid leukoencephalomyelopathy.Various hyperplastic, degenerative and inflammatory changes with minor clinical significance were found in several organs.Summarized, renal lesions followed by neoplastic changes as well as inflammatory changes in lung and gastrointestinal tract represent the most frequent findings in captive wild felids living in German zoological gardens.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Lower Saxony, Germany.

ABSTRACT
This retrospective study provides an overview on spontaneous diseases occurring in 38 captive wild felids submitted for necropsy by German zoological gardens between 2004 and 2013. Species included 18 tigers, 8 leopards, 7 lions, 3 cheetahs and 2 cougars with an age ranging from 0.5 to 22 years. Renal lesions, predominantly tubular alterations (intra-tubular concrements, tubular degeneration, necrosis, intra-tubular cellular debris, proteinaceous casts, dilated tubuli) followed by interstitial (lympho-plasmacytic inflammation, fibrosis, metastatic-suppurative inflammation, eosinophilic inflammation) and glomerular lesions (glomerulonephritis, glomerulosclerosis, amyloidosis) were detected in 33 out of 38 animals (87%). Tumors were found in 19 of 38 felids (50%) with 12 animals showing more than one neoplasm. The tumor prevalence increased with age. Neoplasms originated from endocrine (11), genital (8), lympho-hematopoietic (5) and alimentary organs (4) as well as the mesothelium (3). Most common neoplasms comprised uterine/ovarian leiomyomas (5/2), thyroid adenomas/adenocarcinoma (5/1), pleural mesotheliomas (3), hemangiosarcomas (2) and glossal papillomas (2). Inflammatory changes were frequently encountered in the intestine and the lung. Two young animals displayed metastatic mineralization suggestive of a vitamin D- or calcium intoxication. One tiger exhibited degenerative white matter changes consistent with an entity termed large felid leukoencephalomyelopathy. Various hyperplastic, degenerative and inflammatory changes with minor clinical significance were found in several organs. Summarized, renal lesions followed by neoplastic changes as well as inflammatory changes in lung and gastrointestinal tract represent the most frequent findings in captive wild felids living in German zoological gardens.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus