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Pathology in Captive Wild Felids at German Zoological Gardens.

Junginger J, Hansmann F, Herder V, Lehmbecker A, Peters M, Beyerbach M, Wohlsein P, Baumgärtner W - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: One tiger exhibited degenerative white matter changes consistent with an entity termed large felid leukoencephalomyelopathy.Various hyperplastic, degenerative and inflammatory changes with minor clinical significance were found in several organs.Summarized, renal lesions followed by neoplastic changes as well as inflammatory changes in lung and gastrointestinal tract represent the most frequent findings in captive wild felids living in German zoological gardens.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Lower Saxony, Germany.

ABSTRACT
This retrospective study provides an overview on spontaneous diseases occurring in 38 captive wild felids submitted for necropsy by German zoological gardens between 2004 and 2013. Species included 18 tigers, 8 leopards, 7 lions, 3 cheetahs and 2 cougars with an age ranging from 0.5 to 22 years. Renal lesions, predominantly tubular alterations (intra-tubular concrements, tubular degeneration, necrosis, intra-tubular cellular debris, proteinaceous casts, dilated tubuli) followed by interstitial (lympho-plasmacytic inflammation, fibrosis, metastatic-suppurative inflammation, eosinophilic inflammation) and glomerular lesions (glomerulonephritis, glomerulosclerosis, amyloidosis) were detected in 33 out of 38 animals (87%). Tumors were found in 19 of 38 felids (50%) with 12 animals showing more than one neoplasm. The tumor prevalence increased with age. Neoplasms originated from endocrine (11), genital (8), lympho-hematopoietic (5) and alimentary organs (4) as well as the mesothelium (3). Most common neoplasms comprised uterine/ovarian leiomyomas (5/2), thyroid adenomas/adenocarcinoma (5/1), pleural mesotheliomas (3), hemangiosarcomas (2) and glossal papillomas (2). Inflammatory changes were frequently encountered in the intestine and the lung. Two young animals displayed metastatic mineralization suggestive of a vitamin D- or calcium intoxication. One tiger exhibited degenerative white matter changes consistent with an entity termed large felid leukoencephalomyelopathy. Various hyperplastic, degenerative and inflammatory changes with minor clinical significance were found in several organs. Summarized, renal lesions followed by neoplastic changes as well as inflammatory changes in lung and gastrointestinal tract represent the most frequent findings in captive wild felids living in German zoological gardens.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Renal lesions in wild felids A) Kidney, tiger, 19 years, male (animal no. 27).Chronic interstitial nephritis with an irregular surface of the kidney. B) Kidney, cougar, 18 years, female (animal no. 4). Membranous glomerulonephritis with moderate to severe thickening of Bowman’s capsule. Interstitial infiltrations consisting of lymphocytes, plasma cells and fewer macrophages. H&E-staining. C) Kidney, lion, 6 years, female (animal no. 18). Moderate diffuse interstitial fibrosis. Azan staining. D) Kidney, cougar, 18 years, female (animal no. 4). Membranous glomerulonephritis and a moderate, diffuse thickening of Bowman’s capsule are present. Periodic Acid-Schiff reaction. E) Kidney, tiger, 1 year, female (animal no. 33). Tubular basement membranes displaying severe diffuse depositions of basophilic, plaque-like extracellular material (mineralization). H&E-staining.
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pone.0130573.g001: Renal lesions in wild felids A) Kidney, tiger, 19 years, male (animal no. 27).Chronic interstitial nephritis with an irregular surface of the kidney. B) Kidney, cougar, 18 years, female (animal no. 4). Membranous glomerulonephritis with moderate to severe thickening of Bowman’s capsule. Interstitial infiltrations consisting of lymphocytes, plasma cells and fewer macrophages. H&E-staining. C) Kidney, lion, 6 years, female (animal no. 18). Moderate diffuse interstitial fibrosis. Azan staining. D) Kidney, cougar, 18 years, female (animal no. 4). Membranous glomerulonephritis and a moderate, diffuse thickening of Bowman’s capsule are present. Periodic Acid-Schiff reaction. E) Kidney, tiger, 1 year, female (animal no. 33). Tubular basement membranes displaying severe diffuse depositions of basophilic, plaque-like extracellular material (mineralization). H&E-staining.

Mentions: In the present study 33 out of 38 animals (87%) showed renal lesions (Table 2, S1 Table) without any sex predisposition. They were classified as tubular, interstitial, glomerular pathology and miscellaneous. There was a substantial agreement between the occurrence of interstitial and tubular changes (kappa = 0.68, p < 0.0015), as well as a moderate agreement between the presence of interstitial and glomerular findings (kappa = 0.40, p < 0.0045). However, the association between glomerular changes and tubular changes was not significant (kappa = 0.21, p = 0.084). The risk for the presence of interstitial as well as glomerular changes significantly increased with age of the animals (OR = 1.17, p = 0.0092 and OR = 1.14, p = 0.0135, respectively). Tubular changes included luminal concrement accumulations (23/38 animals; 61%), tubular epithelial degeneration and necrosis comprising luminal cellular detritus and/or cytoplasmic storage of hyaline/lipid droplets (21/38 animals; 55%), as well as proteinaceous casts (19/38 animals; 50%). Tigers revealed a higher risk for the occurrence of tubular degeneration and necrosis compared to leopards (OR = 7.8, p = 0.0345). By statistical analysis, the frequency of proteinaceous casts increased with age (OR = 1.11, p = 0.0396) and was higher in lions compared to leopards (OR = 17.5, p = 0.035). Interstitial kidney lesions consisted of lympho-plasmacytic interstitial nephritis (27/38 animals; 72%; Fig 1A and 1B), fibrosis (26/38 animals; 68%, Fig 1C), eosinophilic interstitial nephritis (4/38; 11%) and metastatic-purulent nephritis (4/38; 11%). There was moderate agreement between the occurrence of increased urea concentration in the anterior eye chamber and concrement accumulation in tubular lumina (kappa = 0.59, p < 0.003) as well as fair agreement with dilated tubuli (kappa = 0.29, p < 0.042). However, other renal lesions, gastritis or enteritis were not significantly associated with increase in urea concentration in the anterior eye chamber. Interstitial nephritis occurred in animals with a median age of 13 years (ranging from 0.5 to 22 years) with an increasing frequency with age (OR = 1.14, p < 0.016) and there was a significant substantial agreement with interstitial fibrosis (kappa = 0.69, p < 0.0002) and fair agreement with glomerular sclerosis (kappa = 0.35, p < 0.0066). There was also an association between age and the presence of interstitial fibrosis (OR = 1.15, p < 0.011). Five animals with interstitial nephritis (5/27 animals; 19%) displayed an erosive to ulcerative gastritis, however there was no statistical significant agreement between the occurrence of these findings (kappa = 0.17, p = 0.1048). Morbillivirus antigen was not detected immunohistochemically in kidneys of captive felids. The frequency of eosinophilic interstitial nephritis decreased with age (OR = 0.80, p = 0.016). Glomerular lesions included glomerulonephritis (GN; 16/38 animals; 42%), glomerulosclerosis (12/38 animals; 32%) and amyloidosis (1/38 animals; 3%). GN was classified as membranoproliferative (7/38 animals; 18%), mesangioproliferative (5/38 animals; 13%) and membranous (4/38 animals; 11%; Fig 1B and 1D). The frequency of GN increased with age (OR = 1.14, p = 0.014). However, the occurrence of GN was not significantly associated with interstitial nephritis. Additional lesions included loss of nephrons (16/38 animals; 42%), lympho-plasmacytic pyelitis (15/26 animals; 57%; renal pelvis was only available in 26 animals) and cytoplasmic storage of a yellow pigment within tubular epithelial cells (11/38 animals; 29%). The frequency of both loss of nephrons and lympho-plasmacytic pyelitis raised with increasing age (OR = 1.15, p < 0.01 and OR = 1.13, p < 0.036, respectively). Pyelitis was further associated with the presence of glomerular changes (kappa = 0.46, p < 0.011). Mineralization of basement membranes was present in 4 animals that did not show systemic mineralization (11%). Polycystic lesions in kidney and liver resembling polycystic kidney disease were observed in one lion (animal no. 19; [38]).


Pathology in Captive Wild Felids at German Zoological Gardens.

Junginger J, Hansmann F, Herder V, Lehmbecker A, Peters M, Beyerbach M, Wohlsein P, Baumgärtner W - PLoS ONE (2015)

Renal lesions in wild felids A) Kidney, tiger, 19 years, male (animal no. 27).Chronic interstitial nephritis with an irregular surface of the kidney. B) Kidney, cougar, 18 years, female (animal no. 4). Membranous glomerulonephritis with moderate to severe thickening of Bowman’s capsule. Interstitial infiltrations consisting of lymphocytes, plasma cells and fewer macrophages. H&E-staining. C) Kidney, lion, 6 years, female (animal no. 18). Moderate diffuse interstitial fibrosis. Azan staining. D) Kidney, cougar, 18 years, female (animal no. 4). Membranous glomerulonephritis and a moderate, diffuse thickening of Bowman’s capsule are present. Periodic Acid-Schiff reaction. E) Kidney, tiger, 1 year, female (animal no. 33). Tubular basement membranes displaying severe diffuse depositions of basophilic, plaque-like extracellular material (mineralization). H&E-staining.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4472349&req=5

pone.0130573.g001: Renal lesions in wild felids A) Kidney, tiger, 19 years, male (animal no. 27).Chronic interstitial nephritis with an irregular surface of the kidney. B) Kidney, cougar, 18 years, female (animal no. 4). Membranous glomerulonephritis with moderate to severe thickening of Bowman’s capsule. Interstitial infiltrations consisting of lymphocytes, plasma cells and fewer macrophages. H&E-staining. C) Kidney, lion, 6 years, female (animal no. 18). Moderate diffuse interstitial fibrosis. Azan staining. D) Kidney, cougar, 18 years, female (animal no. 4). Membranous glomerulonephritis and a moderate, diffuse thickening of Bowman’s capsule are present. Periodic Acid-Schiff reaction. E) Kidney, tiger, 1 year, female (animal no. 33). Tubular basement membranes displaying severe diffuse depositions of basophilic, plaque-like extracellular material (mineralization). H&E-staining.
Mentions: In the present study 33 out of 38 animals (87%) showed renal lesions (Table 2, S1 Table) without any sex predisposition. They were classified as tubular, interstitial, glomerular pathology and miscellaneous. There was a substantial agreement between the occurrence of interstitial and tubular changes (kappa = 0.68, p < 0.0015), as well as a moderate agreement between the presence of interstitial and glomerular findings (kappa = 0.40, p < 0.0045). However, the association between glomerular changes and tubular changes was not significant (kappa = 0.21, p = 0.084). The risk for the presence of interstitial as well as glomerular changes significantly increased with age of the animals (OR = 1.17, p = 0.0092 and OR = 1.14, p = 0.0135, respectively). Tubular changes included luminal concrement accumulations (23/38 animals; 61%), tubular epithelial degeneration and necrosis comprising luminal cellular detritus and/or cytoplasmic storage of hyaline/lipid droplets (21/38 animals; 55%), as well as proteinaceous casts (19/38 animals; 50%). Tigers revealed a higher risk for the occurrence of tubular degeneration and necrosis compared to leopards (OR = 7.8, p = 0.0345). By statistical analysis, the frequency of proteinaceous casts increased with age (OR = 1.11, p = 0.0396) and was higher in lions compared to leopards (OR = 17.5, p = 0.035). Interstitial kidney lesions consisted of lympho-plasmacytic interstitial nephritis (27/38 animals; 72%; Fig 1A and 1B), fibrosis (26/38 animals; 68%, Fig 1C), eosinophilic interstitial nephritis (4/38; 11%) and metastatic-purulent nephritis (4/38; 11%). There was moderate agreement between the occurrence of increased urea concentration in the anterior eye chamber and concrement accumulation in tubular lumina (kappa = 0.59, p < 0.003) as well as fair agreement with dilated tubuli (kappa = 0.29, p < 0.042). However, other renal lesions, gastritis or enteritis were not significantly associated with increase in urea concentration in the anterior eye chamber. Interstitial nephritis occurred in animals with a median age of 13 years (ranging from 0.5 to 22 years) with an increasing frequency with age (OR = 1.14, p < 0.016) and there was a significant substantial agreement with interstitial fibrosis (kappa = 0.69, p < 0.0002) and fair agreement with glomerular sclerosis (kappa = 0.35, p < 0.0066). There was also an association between age and the presence of interstitial fibrosis (OR = 1.15, p < 0.011). Five animals with interstitial nephritis (5/27 animals; 19%) displayed an erosive to ulcerative gastritis, however there was no statistical significant agreement between the occurrence of these findings (kappa = 0.17, p = 0.1048). Morbillivirus antigen was not detected immunohistochemically in kidneys of captive felids. The frequency of eosinophilic interstitial nephritis decreased with age (OR = 0.80, p = 0.016). Glomerular lesions included glomerulonephritis (GN; 16/38 animals; 42%), glomerulosclerosis (12/38 animals; 32%) and amyloidosis (1/38 animals; 3%). GN was classified as membranoproliferative (7/38 animals; 18%), mesangioproliferative (5/38 animals; 13%) and membranous (4/38 animals; 11%; Fig 1B and 1D). The frequency of GN increased with age (OR = 1.14, p = 0.014). However, the occurrence of GN was not significantly associated with interstitial nephritis. Additional lesions included loss of nephrons (16/38 animals; 42%), lympho-plasmacytic pyelitis (15/26 animals; 57%; renal pelvis was only available in 26 animals) and cytoplasmic storage of a yellow pigment within tubular epithelial cells (11/38 animals; 29%). The frequency of both loss of nephrons and lympho-plasmacytic pyelitis raised with increasing age (OR = 1.15, p < 0.01 and OR = 1.13, p < 0.036, respectively). Pyelitis was further associated with the presence of glomerular changes (kappa = 0.46, p < 0.011). Mineralization of basement membranes was present in 4 animals that did not show systemic mineralization (11%). Polycystic lesions in kidney and liver resembling polycystic kidney disease were observed in one lion (animal no. 19; [38]).

Bottom Line: One tiger exhibited degenerative white matter changes consistent with an entity termed large felid leukoencephalomyelopathy.Various hyperplastic, degenerative and inflammatory changes with minor clinical significance were found in several organs.Summarized, renal lesions followed by neoplastic changes as well as inflammatory changes in lung and gastrointestinal tract represent the most frequent findings in captive wild felids living in German zoological gardens.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Lower Saxony, Germany.

ABSTRACT
This retrospective study provides an overview on spontaneous diseases occurring in 38 captive wild felids submitted for necropsy by German zoological gardens between 2004 and 2013. Species included 18 tigers, 8 leopards, 7 lions, 3 cheetahs and 2 cougars with an age ranging from 0.5 to 22 years. Renal lesions, predominantly tubular alterations (intra-tubular concrements, tubular degeneration, necrosis, intra-tubular cellular debris, proteinaceous casts, dilated tubuli) followed by interstitial (lympho-plasmacytic inflammation, fibrosis, metastatic-suppurative inflammation, eosinophilic inflammation) and glomerular lesions (glomerulonephritis, glomerulosclerosis, amyloidosis) were detected in 33 out of 38 animals (87%). Tumors were found in 19 of 38 felids (50%) with 12 animals showing more than one neoplasm. The tumor prevalence increased with age. Neoplasms originated from endocrine (11), genital (8), lympho-hematopoietic (5) and alimentary organs (4) as well as the mesothelium (3). Most common neoplasms comprised uterine/ovarian leiomyomas (5/2), thyroid adenomas/adenocarcinoma (5/1), pleural mesotheliomas (3), hemangiosarcomas (2) and glossal papillomas (2). Inflammatory changes were frequently encountered in the intestine and the lung. Two young animals displayed metastatic mineralization suggestive of a vitamin D- or calcium intoxication. One tiger exhibited degenerative white matter changes consistent with an entity termed large felid leukoencephalomyelopathy. Various hyperplastic, degenerative and inflammatory changes with minor clinical significance were found in several organs. Summarized, renal lesions followed by neoplastic changes as well as inflammatory changes in lung and gastrointestinal tract represent the most frequent findings in captive wild felids living in German zoological gardens.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus