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Neural Correlates of Successful and Unsuccessful Strategical Mechanisms Involved in Uncertain Decision-Making.

Giustiniani J, Gabriel D, Nicolier M, Monnin J, Haffen E - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The ability to develop successful long-term strategies in uncertain situations relies on complex neural mechanisms.No neural difference was found between each group before the selection of a deck, but in both groups a greater negativity was found emerging from the right superior frontal gyrus 600 ms before a disadvantageous selection.During the processing of the feedback, an attenuation of the P200 and P300 waveforms was found for the Undecided group, and a P300 originating from the medial frontal gyrus was found in response to a loss only in the Favorable group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Psychiatry, University Hospital, Besançon, France; CIC-1431 Inserm, University Hospital, Besançon, France.

ABSTRACT
The ability to develop successful long-term strategies in uncertain situations relies on complex neural mechanisms. Although lesion studies have shown some of the mechanisms involved, it is still unknown why some healthy subjects are able to make the right decision whereas others are not. The aim of our study was to investigate neurophysiological differences underlying this ability to develop a successful strategy in a group of healthy subjects playing a monetary card game called the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). In this task, subjects have to win and earn money by choosing between four decks of cards, two were advantageous in the long term and two disadvantageous. Twenty healthy right-handed subjects performed the IGT while their cerebral activity was recorded by electroencephalography. Based on their behavioral performances, two groups of subjects could clearly be distinguished: one who selected the good decks and thus succeeded in developing a Favorable strategy (9 subjects) and one who remained Undecided (11 subjects). No neural difference was found between each group before the selection of a deck, but in both groups a greater negativity was found emerging from the right superior frontal gyrus 600 ms before a disadvantageous selection. During the processing of the feedback, an attenuation of the P200 and P300 waveforms was found for the Undecided group, and a P300 originating from the medial frontal gyrus was found in response to a loss only in the Favorable group. Our results suggest that undecided subjects are hyposensitive to the valence of the cards during gambling, which affects the feedback processing.

No MeSH data available.


Design of the experiment.(a) For the first trial and trial following the break, subjects had to fix a cross while making their selection by pressing a key. (b) Selection was followed by a feedback of the deck chosen and the total credit amount. (c) Then the money involved in this trial was displayed. (d) A fixation point appeared to focus the eyes, followed by a fixation letter announcing the result. Half of subjects (5 men/5 women) received the information that (e) the letter P means loss (“Perdu” means loss) and (f) letter V means win (“Victoire” means victory), and the other half received the opposite information.
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pone.0130871.g001: Design of the experiment.(a) For the first trial and trial following the break, subjects had to fix a cross while making their selection by pressing a key. (b) Selection was followed by a feedback of the deck chosen and the total credit amount. (c) Then the money involved in this trial was displayed. (d) A fixation point appeared to focus the eyes, followed by a fixation letter announcing the result. Half of subjects (5 men/5 women) received the information that (e) the letter P means loss (“Perdu” means loss) and (f) letter V means win (“Victoire” means victory), and the other half received the opposite information.

Mentions: A few changes had to be made to adapt the IGT task to the EEG. First, to extend the electrophysiological recording of the hunch phase, the number of trials was increased from 100 to 200 trials and subjects had no hints about the presence of advantageous or disadvantageous decks. Each deck contained 200 cards. Second, the design of the trial process had been modified to minimize ocular artifacts (Fig 1). For each trial, subjects had to focus on a cross or a letter while making their selection by pressing a key. After the selection a feedback of the deck chosen and the total credit amount were displayed, followed by the amount of money involved in this trial. Then a fixation point appeared in order to focus the eyes, followed by a fixed letter announcing the result. Half of subjects (5 men/5 women) received the information that the letter P means win (“Positif” means positive) and letter V means loss (“Vaincu” means defeated), and the other half received the opposite information (“Victoire” means victory/ “Perdu” means loss). Subjects received the instruction to focus on the letter and not to blink as long as they had not made their next selection. Our choice to show a letter and not the amount of money and outcome simultaneously was to avoid ocular movements induced by reading the amount. Before beginning the task, subjects were trained with a 5-trials short version of the game.


Neural Correlates of Successful and Unsuccessful Strategical Mechanisms Involved in Uncertain Decision-Making.

Giustiniani J, Gabriel D, Nicolier M, Monnin J, Haffen E - PLoS ONE (2015)

Design of the experiment.(a) For the first trial and trial following the break, subjects had to fix a cross while making their selection by pressing a key. (b) Selection was followed by a feedback of the deck chosen and the total credit amount. (c) Then the money involved in this trial was displayed. (d) A fixation point appeared to focus the eyes, followed by a fixation letter announcing the result. Half of subjects (5 men/5 women) received the information that (e) the letter P means loss (“Perdu” means loss) and (f) letter V means win (“Victoire” means victory), and the other half received the opposite information.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4472228&req=5

pone.0130871.g001: Design of the experiment.(a) For the first trial and trial following the break, subjects had to fix a cross while making their selection by pressing a key. (b) Selection was followed by a feedback of the deck chosen and the total credit amount. (c) Then the money involved in this trial was displayed. (d) A fixation point appeared to focus the eyes, followed by a fixation letter announcing the result. Half of subjects (5 men/5 women) received the information that (e) the letter P means loss (“Perdu” means loss) and (f) letter V means win (“Victoire” means victory), and the other half received the opposite information.
Mentions: A few changes had to be made to adapt the IGT task to the EEG. First, to extend the electrophysiological recording of the hunch phase, the number of trials was increased from 100 to 200 trials and subjects had no hints about the presence of advantageous or disadvantageous decks. Each deck contained 200 cards. Second, the design of the trial process had been modified to minimize ocular artifacts (Fig 1). For each trial, subjects had to focus on a cross or a letter while making their selection by pressing a key. After the selection a feedback of the deck chosen and the total credit amount were displayed, followed by the amount of money involved in this trial. Then a fixation point appeared in order to focus the eyes, followed by a fixed letter announcing the result. Half of subjects (5 men/5 women) received the information that the letter P means win (“Positif” means positive) and letter V means loss (“Vaincu” means defeated), and the other half received the opposite information (“Victoire” means victory/ “Perdu” means loss). Subjects received the instruction to focus on the letter and not to blink as long as they had not made their next selection. Our choice to show a letter and not the amount of money and outcome simultaneously was to avoid ocular movements induced by reading the amount. Before beginning the task, subjects were trained with a 5-trials short version of the game.

Bottom Line: The ability to develop successful long-term strategies in uncertain situations relies on complex neural mechanisms.No neural difference was found between each group before the selection of a deck, but in both groups a greater negativity was found emerging from the right superior frontal gyrus 600 ms before a disadvantageous selection.During the processing of the feedback, an attenuation of the P200 and P300 waveforms was found for the Undecided group, and a P300 originating from the medial frontal gyrus was found in response to a loss only in the Favorable group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Psychiatry, University Hospital, Besançon, France; CIC-1431 Inserm, University Hospital, Besançon, France.

ABSTRACT
The ability to develop successful long-term strategies in uncertain situations relies on complex neural mechanisms. Although lesion studies have shown some of the mechanisms involved, it is still unknown why some healthy subjects are able to make the right decision whereas others are not. The aim of our study was to investigate neurophysiological differences underlying this ability to develop a successful strategy in a group of healthy subjects playing a monetary card game called the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). In this task, subjects have to win and earn money by choosing between four decks of cards, two were advantageous in the long term and two disadvantageous. Twenty healthy right-handed subjects performed the IGT while their cerebral activity was recorded by electroencephalography. Based on their behavioral performances, two groups of subjects could clearly be distinguished: one who selected the good decks and thus succeeded in developing a Favorable strategy (9 subjects) and one who remained Undecided (11 subjects). No neural difference was found between each group before the selection of a deck, but in both groups a greater negativity was found emerging from the right superior frontal gyrus 600 ms before a disadvantageous selection. During the processing of the feedback, an attenuation of the P200 and P300 waveforms was found for the Undecided group, and a P300 originating from the medial frontal gyrus was found in response to a loss only in the Favorable group. Our results suggest that undecided subjects are hyposensitive to the valence of the cards during gambling, which affects the feedback processing.

No MeSH data available.