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Gastrointestinal protective efficacy of Kolaviron (a bi-flavonoid from Garcinia kola) following a single administration of sodium arsenite in rats: Biochemical and histopathological studies.

Akinrinde AS, Olowu E, Oyagbemi AA, Omobowale OT - Pharmacognosy Res (2015 Jul-Sep)

Bottom Line: Hydrogen peroxide, reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations as well as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in the remaining portions of the different gastrointestinal tract (GIT) segments.NaAsO2 caused significant increases (P < 0.05) in MDA levels and MPO activity, with significant reductions (P < 0.05) in GST, GPX, CAT and SOD activities in the stomach and intestines.KV significantly reversed the changes (P < 0.05) in a largely dose-dependent manner.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

Background: Arsenic intoxication is known to produce symptoms including diarrhea and vomiting, which are indications of gastrointestinal dysfunction.

Objective: We investigated whether Kolaviron (KV) administration protected against sodium arsenite (NaAsO2)-induced damage to gastric and intestinal epithelium in rats.

Materials and methods: Control rats (Group I) were given a daily oral dose of corn oil. Rats in other groups were given a single dose of NaAsO2 (100 mg/kg; intraperitoneal) alone (Group II) or after pretreatment for 7 days with KV at 100 mg/kg (Group III) and 200 mg/kg (Group IV). Rats were sacrificed afterward and portions of the stomach, small intestine and colon were processed for histopathological examination. Hydrogen peroxide, reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations as well as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in the remaining portions of the different gastrointestinal tract (GIT) segments.

Results: NaAsO2 caused significant increases (P < 0.05) in MDA levels and MPO activity, with significant reductions (P < 0.05) in GST, GPX, CAT and SOD activities in the stomach and intestines. KV significantly reversed the changes (P < 0.05) in a largely dose-dependent manner. The different segments had marked inflammatory cellular infiltration, with hyperplasia of the crypts, which occurred to much lesser degrees with KV administration.

Conclusion: The present findings showed that KV might be a potent product for mitigating NaAsO2 toxicity in the GIT.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Photomicrographs showing the gastric mucosa of (a) control rats with predominantly normal parietal cells (black arrow) with only few inflammatory cells; (b) Sodium arsenite-treated rats, showing marked infiltration of the mucosa and submucosa with inflammatory cells; (c) rats pretreated with Kolaviron (KV) 100 mg/kg and (d) rats pretreated with KV 200 mg/kg, both showing only mild infiltration at the base of the mucosa
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Figure 6: Photomicrographs showing the gastric mucosa of (a) control rats with predominantly normal parietal cells (black arrow) with only few inflammatory cells; (b) Sodium arsenite-treated rats, showing marked infiltration of the mucosa and submucosa with inflammatory cells; (c) rats pretreated with Kolaviron (KV) 100 mg/kg and (d) rats pretreated with KV 200 mg/kg, both showing only mild infiltration at the base of the mucosa

Mentions: Microscopic examination of the gastrointestinal epithelium revealed considerable pathology associated with NaAsO2 exposure, much of which were reduced with KV pretreatment. Lesions in the stomach epithelium were predominantly infiltration of the mucosa and submucosa by inflammatory cells [Figure 6]. KV-treated rats, however, exhibited significantly lesser degrees of inflammatory cell infiltration. In the ileum and duodenum [Figures 7–9 respectively], NaAsO2 treatment-induced pronounced hyperplasia of the crypts and cells lining the glands at the base of the mucosa. Some of the nuclei appeared vesicular with increased nucleocytoplasmic ratio. In these GIT segments, there was also marked inflammatory cell infiltration as seen in the stomach of NaAsO2 treated rats. Some focal areas of erosion and ulceration were observed in the duodenum and ileum (not shown). However, with KV treatment, these lesions were considerable reduced.


Gastrointestinal protective efficacy of Kolaviron (a bi-flavonoid from Garcinia kola) following a single administration of sodium arsenite in rats: Biochemical and histopathological studies.

Akinrinde AS, Olowu E, Oyagbemi AA, Omobowale OT - Pharmacognosy Res (2015 Jul-Sep)

Photomicrographs showing the gastric mucosa of (a) control rats with predominantly normal parietal cells (black arrow) with only few inflammatory cells; (b) Sodium arsenite-treated rats, showing marked infiltration of the mucosa and submucosa with inflammatory cells; (c) rats pretreated with Kolaviron (KV) 100 mg/kg and (d) rats pretreated with KV 200 mg/kg, both showing only mild infiltration at the base of the mucosa
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4471654&req=5

Figure 6: Photomicrographs showing the gastric mucosa of (a) control rats with predominantly normal parietal cells (black arrow) with only few inflammatory cells; (b) Sodium arsenite-treated rats, showing marked infiltration of the mucosa and submucosa with inflammatory cells; (c) rats pretreated with Kolaviron (KV) 100 mg/kg and (d) rats pretreated with KV 200 mg/kg, both showing only mild infiltration at the base of the mucosa
Mentions: Microscopic examination of the gastrointestinal epithelium revealed considerable pathology associated with NaAsO2 exposure, much of which were reduced with KV pretreatment. Lesions in the stomach epithelium were predominantly infiltration of the mucosa and submucosa by inflammatory cells [Figure 6]. KV-treated rats, however, exhibited significantly lesser degrees of inflammatory cell infiltration. In the ileum and duodenum [Figures 7–9 respectively], NaAsO2 treatment-induced pronounced hyperplasia of the crypts and cells lining the glands at the base of the mucosa. Some of the nuclei appeared vesicular with increased nucleocytoplasmic ratio. In these GIT segments, there was also marked inflammatory cell infiltration as seen in the stomach of NaAsO2 treated rats. Some focal areas of erosion and ulceration were observed in the duodenum and ileum (not shown). However, with KV treatment, these lesions were considerable reduced.

Bottom Line: Hydrogen peroxide, reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations as well as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in the remaining portions of the different gastrointestinal tract (GIT) segments.NaAsO2 caused significant increases (P < 0.05) in MDA levels and MPO activity, with significant reductions (P < 0.05) in GST, GPX, CAT and SOD activities in the stomach and intestines.KV significantly reversed the changes (P < 0.05) in a largely dose-dependent manner.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

Background: Arsenic intoxication is known to produce symptoms including diarrhea and vomiting, which are indications of gastrointestinal dysfunction.

Objective: We investigated whether Kolaviron (KV) administration protected against sodium arsenite (NaAsO2)-induced damage to gastric and intestinal epithelium in rats.

Materials and methods: Control rats (Group I) were given a daily oral dose of corn oil. Rats in other groups were given a single dose of NaAsO2 (100 mg/kg; intraperitoneal) alone (Group II) or after pretreatment for 7 days with KV at 100 mg/kg (Group III) and 200 mg/kg (Group IV). Rats were sacrificed afterward and portions of the stomach, small intestine and colon were processed for histopathological examination. Hydrogen peroxide, reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations as well as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in the remaining portions of the different gastrointestinal tract (GIT) segments.

Results: NaAsO2 caused significant increases (P < 0.05) in MDA levels and MPO activity, with significant reductions (P < 0.05) in GST, GPX, CAT and SOD activities in the stomach and intestines. KV significantly reversed the changes (P < 0.05) in a largely dose-dependent manner. The different segments had marked inflammatory cellular infiltration, with hyperplasia of the crypts, which occurred to much lesser degrees with KV administration.

Conclusion: The present findings showed that KV might be a potent product for mitigating NaAsO2 toxicity in the GIT.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus