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A Peculiar New Pampatheriidae (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Cingulata) from the Pleistocene of Argentina and Comments on Pampatheriidae Diversity.

Góis F, González Ruiz LR, Scillato-Yané GJ, Soibelzon E - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: It has extremely complex osteoderm ornamentations and particular morphological characters of the cranial element and femur that are not found in any other species of the family.This new taxon, recorded in the lower-middle Pleistocene (Ensenadan Stage/Age) and in the upper Pleistocene-early Holocene (Lujanian Stage/Age), is incorporated to the Pleistocene mammal assemblage of South America.Finally, the Pampatheriidae diversity is greater during the Lujanian Stage/Age than the Ensenadan Stage/Age.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratorio de Paleontología de Vertebrados, Centro de Investigaciones Científicas y Transferencia de Tecnología a la Producción (CICYTTP-CONICET), Materi y España, 3105 Diamante, Entre Ríos, Argentina; CONICET, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Rivadavia, 1917, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

ABSTRACT
Pampatheriidae are a group of cingulates native to South American that are known from the middle Miocene to the lower Holocene. Two genera have been recognized between the lower Pleistocene and the lower Holocene: Pampatherium Gervais and Ameghino (Ensenadan, Bonaerian and Lujanian, lower Pleistocene-lower Holocene) and Holmesina Simpson (Blancan, Irvingtonian, upper Pliocene-lower Holocene). They have been mainly differentiated by their osteoderm morphology and cranio-dental characters. These taxa had a wide latitudinal distribution, extending from the southern part of South America (Península Valdés, Argentina) to North America (Florida, USA). In this contribution, we describe a new genus and species of Pampatheriidae for the lower and middle Pleistocene of Buenos Aires Province and for the upper Pleistocene of Santa Fe Province (Argentina).The new taxon is represented by disarticulated osteoderms, one skull element, two thoracic vertebrae and a right femur and patella. It has extremely complex osteoderm ornamentations and particular morphological characters of the cranial element and femur that are not found in any other species of the family. This new taxon, recorded in the lower-middle Pleistocene (Ensenadan Stage/Age) and in the upper Pleistocene-early Holocene (Lujanian Stage/Age), is incorporated to the Pleistocene mammal assemblage of South America. Finally, the Pampatheriidae diversity is greater during the Lujanian Stage/Age than the Ensenadan Stage/Age.

No MeSH data available.


Postcranial elements of Tonnicinctus mirus gen. et sp. nov. (MLP 54-III-16-1).A–B, anterior and posterior view of the right femur; C–D, anterior and posterior view of the right patella. Scale bars = 50 mm.
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pone.0128296.g009: Postcranial elements of Tonnicinctus mirus gen. et sp. nov. (MLP 54-III-16-1).A–B, anterior and posterior view of the right femur; C–D, anterior and posterior view of the right patella. Scale bars = 50 mm.

Mentions: Thoracic vertebrae—two posterior thoracic vertebrae are preserved (Figs 7C–7F and 8C–8F). These vertebrae belong to the typical xenarthral type, common to most Xenarthra (xenarthrous articulations, see [59]). There are two additional pairs of both the anterior and the posterior zygapophyses. In T. mirus the spinous process is considerably shorter than in H. septentrionalis, HMNS 173 (Houston Museum of Natural Science, Houston, Texas, USA) and ROM 3854 [55,15] (Figs 1* and 9*, respectively) and proportionally shorter that in D. puntactus, MN 552-V (Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). The angle produced by the transverse processes in pampatheres is much wider than 90° unlike in D. puntactus (with approximately a 90° angle [60] see Fig 6C* and 6D*) and the anterior zygopophyses are not as widely separated as in D. puntactus. The width and depth of the centrum is relatively smaller in pampatheres, but the length is proportionally the same as in D. puntactus. The largest and smallest diameters of the vertebral foramen are smaller in T. mirus than in H. septentrionalis (Table 3).


A Peculiar New Pampatheriidae (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Cingulata) from the Pleistocene of Argentina and Comments on Pampatheriidae Diversity.

Góis F, González Ruiz LR, Scillato-Yané GJ, Soibelzon E - PLoS ONE (2015)

Postcranial elements of Tonnicinctus mirus gen. et sp. nov. (MLP 54-III-16-1).A–B, anterior and posterior view of the right femur; C–D, anterior and posterior view of the right patella. Scale bars = 50 mm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4470999&req=5

pone.0128296.g009: Postcranial elements of Tonnicinctus mirus gen. et sp. nov. (MLP 54-III-16-1).A–B, anterior and posterior view of the right femur; C–D, anterior and posterior view of the right patella. Scale bars = 50 mm.
Mentions: Thoracic vertebrae—two posterior thoracic vertebrae are preserved (Figs 7C–7F and 8C–8F). These vertebrae belong to the typical xenarthral type, common to most Xenarthra (xenarthrous articulations, see [59]). There are two additional pairs of both the anterior and the posterior zygapophyses. In T. mirus the spinous process is considerably shorter than in H. septentrionalis, HMNS 173 (Houston Museum of Natural Science, Houston, Texas, USA) and ROM 3854 [55,15] (Figs 1* and 9*, respectively) and proportionally shorter that in D. puntactus, MN 552-V (Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). The angle produced by the transverse processes in pampatheres is much wider than 90° unlike in D. puntactus (with approximately a 90° angle [60] see Fig 6C* and 6D*) and the anterior zygopophyses are not as widely separated as in D. puntactus. The width and depth of the centrum is relatively smaller in pampatheres, but the length is proportionally the same as in D. puntactus. The largest and smallest diameters of the vertebral foramen are smaller in T. mirus than in H. septentrionalis (Table 3).

Bottom Line: It has extremely complex osteoderm ornamentations and particular morphological characters of the cranial element and femur that are not found in any other species of the family.This new taxon, recorded in the lower-middle Pleistocene (Ensenadan Stage/Age) and in the upper Pleistocene-early Holocene (Lujanian Stage/Age), is incorporated to the Pleistocene mammal assemblage of South America.Finally, the Pampatheriidae diversity is greater during the Lujanian Stage/Age than the Ensenadan Stage/Age.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratorio de Paleontología de Vertebrados, Centro de Investigaciones Científicas y Transferencia de Tecnología a la Producción (CICYTTP-CONICET), Materi y España, 3105 Diamante, Entre Ríos, Argentina; CONICET, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Rivadavia, 1917, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

ABSTRACT
Pampatheriidae are a group of cingulates native to South American that are known from the middle Miocene to the lower Holocene. Two genera have been recognized between the lower Pleistocene and the lower Holocene: Pampatherium Gervais and Ameghino (Ensenadan, Bonaerian and Lujanian, lower Pleistocene-lower Holocene) and Holmesina Simpson (Blancan, Irvingtonian, upper Pliocene-lower Holocene). They have been mainly differentiated by their osteoderm morphology and cranio-dental characters. These taxa had a wide latitudinal distribution, extending from the southern part of South America (Península Valdés, Argentina) to North America (Florida, USA). In this contribution, we describe a new genus and species of Pampatheriidae for the lower and middle Pleistocene of Buenos Aires Province and for the upper Pleistocene of Santa Fe Province (Argentina).The new taxon is represented by disarticulated osteoderms, one skull element, two thoracic vertebrae and a right femur and patella. It has extremely complex osteoderm ornamentations and particular morphological characters of the cranial element and femur that are not found in any other species of the family. This new taxon, recorded in the lower-middle Pleistocene (Ensenadan Stage/Age) and in the upper Pleistocene-early Holocene (Lujanian Stage/Age), is incorporated to the Pleistocene mammal assemblage of South America. Finally, the Pampatheriidae diversity is greater during the Lujanian Stage/Age than the Ensenadan Stage/Age.

No MeSH data available.