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A Peculiar New Pampatheriidae (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Cingulata) from the Pleistocene of Argentina and Comments on Pampatheriidae Diversity.

Góis F, González Ruiz LR, Scillato-Yané GJ, Soibelzon E - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: It has extremely complex osteoderm ornamentations and particular morphological characters of the cranial element and femur that are not found in any other species of the family.This new taxon, recorded in the lower-middle Pleistocene (Ensenadan Stage/Age) and in the upper Pleistocene-early Holocene (Lujanian Stage/Age), is incorporated to the Pleistocene mammal assemblage of South America.Finally, the Pampatheriidae diversity is greater during the Lujanian Stage/Age than the Ensenadan Stage/Age.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratorio de Paleontología de Vertebrados, Centro de Investigaciones Científicas y Transferencia de Tecnología a la Producción (CICYTTP-CONICET), Materi y España, 3105 Diamante, Entre Ríos, Argentina; CONICET, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Rivadavia, 1917, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

ABSTRACT
Pampatheriidae are a group of cingulates native to South American that are known from the middle Miocene to the lower Holocene. Two genera have been recognized between the lower Pleistocene and the lower Holocene: Pampatherium Gervais and Ameghino (Ensenadan, Bonaerian and Lujanian, lower Pleistocene-lower Holocene) and Holmesina Simpson (Blancan, Irvingtonian, upper Pliocene-lower Holocene). They have been mainly differentiated by their osteoderm morphology and cranio-dental characters. These taxa had a wide latitudinal distribution, extending from the southern part of South America (Península Valdés, Argentina) to North America (Florida, USA). In this contribution, we describe a new genus and species of Pampatheriidae for the lower and middle Pleistocene of Buenos Aires Province and for the upper Pleistocene of Santa Fe Province (Argentina).The new taxon is represented by disarticulated osteoderms, one skull element, two thoracic vertebrae and a right femur and patella. It has extremely complex osteoderm ornamentations and particular morphological characters of the cranial element and femur that are not found in any other species of the family. This new taxon, recorded in the lower-middle Pleistocene (Ensenadan Stage/Age) and in the upper Pleistocene-early Holocene (Lujanian Stage/Age), is incorporated to the Pleistocene mammal assemblage of South America. Finally, the Pampatheriidae diversity is greater during the Lujanian Stage/Age than the Ensenadan Stage/Age.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cranial and postcranial elements of Tonnicinctus mirus gen. et sp. nov (holotype, MLP 54-III-16-1).A–B, lateral and ventral view of the temporal region; C–E, anterior view of the thoracic vertebrae; D–F, posterior view of the thoracic vertebrae. Scale bars = 50 mm.
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pone.0128296.g007: Cranial and postcranial elements of Tonnicinctus mirus gen. et sp. nov (holotype, MLP 54-III-16-1).A–B, lateral and ventral view of the temporal region; C–E, anterior view of the thoracic vertebrae; D–F, posterior view of the thoracic vertebrae. Scale bars = 50 mm.

Mentions: Temporal region—the only cranial element preserved of T. mirus is the temporal region that in lateral view shows the squamosal, external auditory meatus, postglenoid process, zygomatic process of the squamosal, while in ventral view shows the glenoid fossa, postglenoid process, foramen ovale and small portion of the alisphenoid (Figs 7A, 7B, 8A and 8B). In T. mirus, the temporal region of the squamosal has a few foramina and very small vascular canals like in H. rondoniensis, MERO-P-002 (Museu do Estado de Rondônia, Porto Velho, Rondônia, Brazil) contrary to P. intermedia (FMNH 14424), this specimen was assigned to P. subintermedia by [56], but later the designation changed to V. maxima [58, 29], P. typum, P. humboldtii and H. paulacoutoi, species with more foramina and very deep and long vascular canals in the temporal region. The zygomatic root in T. mirus is parallel to the lateral margin of the squamosal, similar to H. rondoniensis and P. typum, and is inclined in H. paulacoutoi, H. septentrionalis and H. floridana, UF 191448 (Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida, USA). In T. mirus, the pars mastoidea preserves only a small part (Fig 7A). This structure in the pampatheres (e.g. P. intermedia, FMNH P 14424; P. typum, MACN 11543 (Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Buenos Aires, Argentina) has a large and robust (short and wide in Euphractus sexcinctus Linnaeus, 1758) occipital exposure and forms the ventrolateral corner of the occiput [56]. The external auditory meatus in pampatheres is located laterally forward and was farther posterior to the glenoid fossa that in other Dasypodidae, a similar feature with the glyptodonts [56, 29] (Fig 7A).


A Peculiar New Pampatheriidae (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Cingulata) from the Pleistocene of Argentina and Comments on Pampatheriidae Diversity.

Góis F, González Ruiz LR, Scillato-Yané GJ, Soibelzon E - PLoS ONE (2015)

Cranial and postcranial elements of Tonnicinctus mirus gen. et sp. nov (holotype, MLP 54-III-16-1).A–B, lateral and ventral view of the temporal region; C–E, anterior view of the thoracic vertebrae; D–F, posterior view of the thoracic vertebrae. Scale bars = 50 mm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4470999&req=5

pone.0128296.g007: Cranial and postcranial elements of Tonnicinctus mirus gen. et sp. nov (holotype, MLP 54-III-16-1).A–B, lateral and ventral view of the temporal region; C–E, anterior view of the thoracic vertebrae; D–F, posterior view of the thoracic vertebrae. Scale bars = 50 mm.
Mentions: Temporal region—the only cranial element preserved of T. mirus is the temporal region that in lateral view shows the squamosal, external auditory meatus, postglenoid process, zygomatic process of the squamosal, while in ventral view shows the glenoid fossa, postglenoid process, foramen ovale and small portion of the alisphenoid (Figs 7A, 7B, 8A and 8B). In T. mirus, the temporal region of the squamosal has a few foramina and very small vascular canals like in H. rondoniensis, MERO-P-002 (Museu do Estado de Rondônia, Porto Velho, Rondônia, Brazil) contrary to P. intermedia (FMNH 14424), this specimen was assigned to P. subintermedia by [56], but later the designation changed to V. maxima [58, 29], P. typum, P. humboldtii and H. paulacoutoi, species with more foramina and very deep and long vascular canals in the temporal region. The zygomatic root in T. mirus is parallel to the lateral margin of the squamosal, similar to H. rondoniensis and P. typum, and is inclined in H. paulacoutoi, H. septentrionalis and H. floridana, UF 191448 (Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida, USA). In T. mirus, the pars mastoidea preserves only a small part (Fig 7A). This structure in the pampatheres (e.g. P. intermedia, FMNH P 14424; P. typum, MACN 11543 (Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Buenos Aires, Argentina) has a large and robust (short and wide in Euphractus sexcinctus Linnaeus, 1758) occipital exposure and forms the ventrolateral corner of the occiput [56]. The external auditory meatus in pampatheres is located laterally forward and was farther posterior to the glenoid fossa that in other Dasypodidae, a similar feature with the glyptodonts [56, 29] (Fig 7A).

Bottom Line: It has extremely complex osteoderm ornamentations and particular morphological characters of the cranial element and femur that are not found in any other species of the family.This new taxon, recorded in the lower-middle Pleistocene (Ensenadan Stage/Age) and in the upper Pleistocene-early Holocene (Lujanian Stage/Age), is incorporated to the Pleistocene mammal assemblage of South America.Finally, the Pampatheriidae diversity is greater during the Lujanian Stage/Age than the Ensenadan Stage/Age.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratorio de Paleontología de Vertebrados, Centro de Investigaciones Científicas y Transferencia de Tecnología a la Producción (CICYTTP-CONICET), Materi y España, 3105 Diamante, Entre Ríos, Argentina; CONICET, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Rivadavia, 1917, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

ABSTRACT
Pampatheriidae are a group of cingulates native to South American that are known from the middle Miocene to the lower Holocene. Two genera have been recognized between the lower Pleistocene and the lower Holocene: Pampatherium Gervais and Ameghino (Ensenadan, Bonaerian and Lujanian, lower Pleistocene-lower Holocene) and Holmesina Simpson (Blancan, Irvingtonian, upper Pliocene-lower Holocene). They have been mainly differentiated by their osteoderm morphology and cranio-dental characters. These taxa had a wide latitudinal distribution, extending from the southern part of South America (Península Valdés, Argentina) to North America (Florida, USA). In this contribution, we describe a new genus and species of Pampatheriidae for the lower and middle Pleistocene of Buenos Aires Province and for the upper Pleistocene of Santa Fe Province (Argentina).The new taxon is represented by disarticulated osteoderms, one skull element, two thoracic vertebrae and a right femur and patella. It has extremely complex osteoderm ornamentations and particular morphological characters of the cranial element and femur that are not found in any other species of the family. This new taxon, recorded in the lower-middle Pleistocene (Ensenadan Stage/Age) and in the upper Pleistocene-early Holocene (Lujanian Stage/Age), is incorporated to the Pleistocene mammal assemblage of South America. Finally, the Pampatheriidae diversity is greater during the Lujanian Stage/Age than the Ensenadan Stage/Age.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus