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A Peculiar New Pampatheriidae (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Cingulata) from the Pleistocene of Argentina and Comments on Pampatheriidae Diversity.

Góis F, González Ruiz LR, Scillato-Yané GJ, Soibelzon E - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: It has extremely complex osteoderm ornamentations and particular morphological characters of the cranial element and femur that are not found in any other species of the family.This new taxon, recorded in the lower-middle Pleistocene (Ensenadan Stage/Age) and in the upper Pleistocene-early Holocene (Lujanian Stage/Age), is incorporated to the Pleistocene mammal assemblage of South America.Finally, the Pampatheriidae diversity is greater during the Lujanian Stage/Age than the Ensenadan Stage/Age.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratorio de Paleontología de Vertebrados, Centro de Investigaciones Científicas y Transferencia de Tecnología a la Producción (CICYTTP-CONICET), Materi y España, 3105 Diamante, Entre Ríos, Argentina; CONICET, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Rivadavia, 1917, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

ABSTRACT
Pampatheriidae are a group of cingulates native to South American that are known from the middle Miocene to the lower Holocene. Two genera have been recognized between the lower Pleistocene and the lower Holocene: Pampatherium Gervais and Ameghino (Ensenadan, Bonaerian and Lujanian, lower Pleistocene-lower Holocene) and Holmesina Simpson (Blancan, Irvingtonian, upper Pliocene-lower Holocene). They have been mainly differentiated by their osteoderm morphology and cranio-dental characters. These taxa had a wide latitudinal distribution, extending from the southern part of South America (Península Valdés, Argentina) to North America (Florida, USA). In this contribution, we describe a new genus and species of Pampatheriidae for the lower and middle Pleistocene of Buenos Aires Province and for the upper Pleistocene of Santa Fe Province (Argentina).The new taxon is represented by disarticulated osteoderms, one skull element, two thoracic vertebrae and a right femur and patella. It has extremely complex osteoderm ornamentations and particular morphological characters of the cranial element and femur that are not found in any other species of the family. This new taxon, recorded in the lower-middle Pleistocene (Ensenadan Stage/Age) and in the upper Pleistocene-early Holocene (Lujanian Stage/Age), is incorporated to the Pleistocene mammal assemblage of South America. Finally, the Pampatheriidae diversity is greater during the Lujanian Stage/Age than the Ensenadan Stage/Age.

No MeSH data available.


Comparison of fixed osteoderms.A,Scirrotherium hondaense (UCMP 37979), scale bars = 50 mm; B,S. antelucanus (CFM-2559), scale bars = 10 mm; C,S. carinatum (MLP 41-XII-13-905), scale bars = 30 mm; D,Kraglievichia paranensis (MLP 69-IX-8-13), scale bars = 30 mm; E,Vassallia minuta (MLP 69-XII-26-17), scale bars = 30 mm; F,Plaina intermedia (FMNH P 14424), scale bars = 30 mm; G,Pampatherium humboldtii (MLP 81-X-30-1), scale bars = 30 mm; H,Holmesina floridanus (UF 224397), scale bars = 30 mm; I,H. septentrionalis (AMNH 23435), scale bars = 30 mm; J,H. paulacouoti (holotype, MCL-501/110-126), scale bars = 30 mm.
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pone.0128296.g005: Comparison of fixed osteoderms.A,Scirrotherium hondaense (UCMP 37979), scale bars = 50 mm; B,S. antelucanus (CFM-2559), scale bars = 10 mm; C,S. carinatum (MLP 41-XII-13-905), scale bars = 30 mm; D,Kraglievichia paranensis (MLP 69-IX-8-13), scale bars = 30 mm; E,Vassallia minuta (MLP 69-XII-26-17), scale bars = 30 mm; F,Plaina intermedia (FMNH P 14424), scale bars = 30 mm; G,Pampatherium humboldtii (MLP 81-X-30-1), scale bars = 30 mm; H,Holmesina floridanus (UF 224397), scale bars = 30 mm; I,H. septentrionalis (AMNH 23435), scale bars = 30 mm; J,H. paulacouoti (holotype, MCL-501/110-126), scale bars = 30 mm.

Mentions: Fixed osteoderms from the scapular and pelvic buckler—these osteoderms possess a generally pentagonal or hexagonal shape in the scapular buckler and a quadrangular shape in the pelvic buckler (Figs 3C, 4A–4E and 5A–5J). In Tonnicinctus mirus, the anterior and lateral margins are very wide and rugged, more than in Pampatherium typum, P. humboldtii, MCL 900 (Museu de Ciências Biológicas da Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil); P. mexicanum, INAH 6201 (Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Ciudad de México, Distrito Federal, México) but less than in Holmesina paulacoutoi (Fig 5G and 5J). The foramina of the anterior margin are much larger than those of the lateral margins, and are larger and deeper than in Pampatherium and smaller than in H. paulacoutoi (Table 1).


A Peculiar New Pampatheriidae (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Cingulata) from the Pleistocene of Argentina and Comments on Pampatheriidae Diversity.

Góis F, González Ruiz LR, Scillato-Yané GJ, Soibelzon E - PLoS ONE (2015)

Comparison of fixed osteoderms.A,Scirrotherium hondaense (UCMP 37979), scale bars = 50 mm; B,S. antelucanus (CFM-2559), scale bars = 10 mm; C,S. carinatum (MLP 41-XII-13-905), scale bars = 30 mm; D,Kraglievichia paranensis (MLP 69-IX-8-13), scale bars = 30 mm; E,Vassallia minuta (MLP 69-XII-26-17), scale bars = 30 mm; F,Plaina intermedia (FMNH P 14424), scale bars = 30 mm; G,Pampatherium humboldtii (MLP 81-X-30-1), scale bars = 30 mm; H,Holmesina floridanus (UF 224397), scale bars = 30 mm; I,H. septentrionalis (AMNH 23435), scale bars = 30 mm; J,H. paulacouoti (holotype, MCL-501/110-126), scale bars = 30 mm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4470999&req=5

pone.0128296.g005: Comparison of fixed osteoderms.A,Scirrotherium hondaense (UCMP 37979), scale bars = 50 mm; B,S. antelucanus (CFM-2559), scale bars = 10 mm; C,S. carinatum (MLP 41-XII-13-905), scale bars = 30 mm; D,Kraglievichia paranensis (MLP 69-IX-8-13), scale bars = 30 mm; E,Vassallia minuta (MLP 69-XII-26-17), scale bars = 30 mm; F,Plaina intermedia (FMNH P 14424), scale bars = 30 mm; G,Pampatherium humboldtii (MLP 81-X-30-1), scale bars = 30 mm; H,Holmesina floridanus (UF 224397), scale bars = 30 mm; I,H. septentrionalis (AMNH 23435), scale bars = 30 mm; J,H. paulacouoti (holotype, MCL-501/110-126), scale bars = 30 mm.
Mentions: Fixed osteoderms from the scapular and pelvic buckler—these osteoderms possess a generally pentagonal or hexagonal shape in the scapular buckler and a quadrangular shape in the pelvic buckler (Figs 3C, 4A–4E and 5A–5J). In Tonnicinctus mirus, the anterior and lateral margins are very wide and rugged, more than in Pampatherium typum, P. humboldtii, MCL 900 (Museu de Ciências Biológicas da Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil); P. mexicanum, INAH 6201 (Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Ciudad de México, Distrito Federal, México) but less than in Holmesina paulacoutoi (Fig 5G and 5J). The foramina of the anterior margin are much larger than those of the lateral margins, and are larger and deeper than in Pampatherium and smaller than in H. paulacoutoi (Table 1).

Bottom Line: It has extremely complex osteoderm ornamentations and particular morphological characters of the cranial element and femur that are not found in any other species of the family.This new taxon, recorded in the lower-middle Pleistocene (Ensenadan Stage/Age) and in the upper Pleistocene-early Holocene (Lujanian Stage/Age), is incorporated to the Pleistocene mammal assemblage of South America.Finally, the Pampatheriidae diversity is greater during the Lujanian Stage/Age than the Ensenadan Stage/Age.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratorio de Paleontología de Vertebrados, Centro de Investigaciones Científicas y Transferencia de Tecnología a la Producción (CICYTTP-CONICET), Materi y España, 3105 Diamante, Entre Ríos, Argentina; CONICET, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Rivadavia, 1917, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

ABSTRACT
Pampatheriidae are a group of cingulates native to South American that are known from the middle Miocene to the lower Holocene. Two genera have been recognized between the lower Pleistocene and the lower Holocene: Pampatherium Gervais and Ameghino (Ensenadan, Bonaerian and Lujanian, lower Pleistocene-lower Holocene) and Holmesina Simpson (Blancan, Irvingtonian, upper Pliocene-lower Holocene). They have been mainly differentiated by their osteoderm morphology and cranio-dental characters. These taxa had a wide latitudinal distribution, extending from the southern part of South America (Península Valdés, Argentina) to North America (Florida, USA). In this contribution, we describe a new genus and species of Pampatheriidae for the lower and middle Pleistocene of Buenos Aires Province and for the upper Pleistocene of Santa Fe Province (Argentina).The new taxon is represented by disarticulated osteoderms, one skull element, two thoracic vertebrae and a right femur and patella. It has extremely complex osteoderm ornamentations and particular morphological characters of the cranial element and femur that are not found in any other species of the family. This new taxon, recorded in the lower-middle Pleistocene (Ensenadan Stage/Age) and in the upper Pleistocene-early Holocene (Lujanian Stage/Age), is incorporated to the Pleistocene mammal assemblage of South America. Finally, the Pampatheriidae diversity is greater during the Lujanian Stage/Age than the Ensenadan Stage/Age.

No MeSH data available.