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T. vaginalis Infection Is Associated with Increased IL-8 and TNFr1 Levels but with the Absence of CD38 and HLADR Activation in the Cervix of ESN.

Jarrett OD, Brady KE, Modur SP, Plants J, Landay AL, Ghassemi M, Golub ET, Spear GT, Novak RM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: However, T. vaginalis infection was not associated with increased percent expression of CCR5+ T cells nor increased CD38 and HLADR activation compared to uninfected women.It was also not associated with increased expression of CCR5+ monocytes.Among ESN T. vaginalis infection is associated with increased levels of genital pro-inflammatory/immune activation markers IL-8 and TNFr1, but was not associated with an increased percentage of activated endocervical T cells along the CD38 and HLADR pathways.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, 60612, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Trichomonas vaginalis infection is associated with an increased risk of HIV infection in exposed-seronegative women (ESN) despite their unique immune quiescent profile. It is important to understand possible mechanisms, such as recruitment of activated T cells, by which T. vaginalis could facilitate HIV infection in this population.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study exploring the relationships between T. vaginalis infection, inflammatory markers and T cell activation in the cervix of ESN. During scheduled study visits, participants completed a behavioral questionnaire and physical exam, including sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening and collection of endocervical sponge and cytobrush specimens. T cell and monocyte phenotypes were measured in cervical cytobrush specimens using multi-parameter flow cytometry. Cervical sponge specimens were used to measure cytokines (IL-6, IL-8,IL-10, IP-10, RANTES) using Luminex immunoassays and the immune activation marker soluble TNF receptor 1 using ELISA.

Results: Specimens of 65 women were tested. Twenty-one of these women were infected with T. vaginalis. T. vaginalis infection was associated with significantly increased concentrations of IL-8 (1275pg/ml vs. 566pg/ml, p=.02) and sTNFr1 (430 pg/ml vs. 264 pg/ml, p=.005). However, T. vaginalis infection was not associated with increased percent expression of CCR5+ T cells nor increased CD38 and HLADR activation compared to uninfected women. It was also not associated with increased expression of CCR5+ monocytes.

Conclusions: Among ESN T. vaginalis infection is associated with increased levels of genital pro-inflammatory/immune activation markers IL-8 and TNFr1, but was not associated with an increased percentage of activated endocervical T cells along the CD38 and HLADR pathways. Thus, while T.vaginalis infection may result in some reversal of the immune quiescent profile of ESN, enhanced recruitment of activated CD38 and HLADR expressing CD4+ cells into the endocervix may not be part of the mechanism by which Trichomonas infection alters HIV susceptibility in this unique subset of women.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Gating strategy for mononuclear cell expression.Dead cells were excluded with a viability stain before gating on CD45+ cells. CD45+ cells were further analyzed for CD3+ and CD14+ expression. CD45+CD3+ cells were gated on CD4+ or CD8+ before HLA-DR/CD38 quadrant gating as well as CCR5 co-receptor expression. CD45+CD14+ cells were also analyzed for CCR5 expression.
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pone.0130146.g002: Gating strategy for mononuclear cell expression.Dead cells were excluded with a viability stain before gating on CD45+ cells. CD45+ cells were further analyzed for CD3+ and CD14+ expression. CD45+CD3+ cells were gated on CD4+ or CD8+ before HLA-DR/CD38 quadrant gating as well as CCR5 co-receptor expression. CD45+CD14+ cells were also analyzed for CCR5 expression.

Mentions: Percent expression of T cell and monocyte phenotypes in the endocervix were evaluated using the gating strategy outlined in Fig 2. Cervical cytobrush samples with CD3+ event counts <200 were excluded from analysis. We also excluded an additional sample with CD3+ events >200 but with < 1% of events within the CD4+ and CD8+ gate. T. vaglinalis infection was not associated with increased expression of CCR5+ CD4+ or CD8+ cells (Table 2). It was also not associated with activated CD4+ or CD8+ cells of the HLADR+CD38+ phenotypes. In fact, we observed that T. vaginalis was associated with decreased percent expression of CD4+ cells of the CD38-HLADR+ phenotype (p = .01). Lastly, there was a trend toward decreased expression of CCR5+ monocytes in T. vaginalis infected women in the unadjusted model (p = .07). However, this relationship was no longer significant after adjusting for age and menstrual phase (p = .14).


T. vaginalis Infection Is Associated with Increased IL-8 and TNFr1 Levels but with the Absence of CD38 and HLADR Activation in the Cervix of ESN.

Jarrett OD, Brady KE, Modur SP, Plants J, Landay AL, Ghassemi M, Golub ET, Spear GT, Novak RM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Gating strategy for mononuclear cell expression.Dead cells were excluded with a viability stain before gating on CD45+ cells. CD45+ cells were further analyzed for CD3+ and CD14+ expression. CD45+CD3+ cells were gated on CD4+ or CD8+ before HLA-DR/CD38 quadrant gating as well as CCR5 co-receptor expression. CD45+CD14+ cells were also analyzed for CCR5 expression.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4470998&req=5

pone.0130146.g002: Gating strategy for mononuclear cell expression.Dead cells were excluded with a viability stain before gating on CD45+ cells. CD45+ cells were further analyzed for CD3+ and CD14+ expression. CD45+CD3+ cells were gated on CD4+ or CD8+ before HLA-DR/CD38 quadrant gating as well as CCR5 co-receptor expression. CD45+CD14+ cells were also analyzed for CCR5 expression.
Mentions: Percent expression of T cell and monocyte phenotypes in the endocervix were evaluated using the gating strategy outlined in Fig 2. Cervical cytobrush samples with CD3+ event counts <200 were excluded from analysis. We also excluded an additional sample with CD3+ events >200 but with < 1% of events within the CD4+ and CD8+ gate. T. vaglinalis infection was not associated with increased expression of CCR5+ CD4+ or CD8+ cells (Table 2). It was also not associated with activated CD4+ or CD8+ cells of the HLADR+CD38+ phenotypes. In fact, we observed that T. vaginalis was associated with decreased percent expression of CD4+ cells of the CD38-HLADR+ phenotype (p = .01). Lastly, there was a trend toward decreased expression of CCR5+ monocytes in T. vaginalis infected women in the unadjusted model (p = .07). However, this relationship was no longer significant after adjusting for age and menstrual phase (p = .14).

Bottom Line: However, T. vaginalis infection was not associated with increased percent expression of CCR5+ T cells nor increased CD38 and HLADR activation compared to uninfected women.It was also not associated with increased expression of CCR5+ monocytes.Among ESN T. vaginalis infection is associated with increased levels of genital pro-inflammatory/immune activation markers IL-8 and TNFr1, but was not associated with an increased percentage of activated endocervical T cells along the CD38 and HLADR pathways.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, 60612, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Trichomonas vaginalis infection is associated with an increased risk of HIV infection in exposed-seronegative women (ESN) despite their unique immune quiescent profile. It is important to understand possible mechanisms, such as recruitment of activated T cells, by which T. vaginalis could facilitate HIV infection in this population.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study exploring the relationships between T. vaginalis infection, inflammatory markers and T cell activation in the cervix of ESN. During scheduled study visits, participants completed a behavioral questionnaire and physical exam, including sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening and collection of endocervical sponge and cytobrush specimens. T cell and monocyte phenotypes were measured in cervical cytobrush specimens using multi-parameter flow cytometry. Cervical sponge specimens were used to measure cytokines (IL-6, IL-8,IL-10, IP-10, RANTES) using Luminex immunoassays and the immune activation marker soluble TNF receptor 1 using ELISA.

Results: Specimens of 65 women were tested. Twenty-one of these women were infected with T. vaginalis. T. vaginalis infection was associated with significantly increased concentrations of IL-8 (1275pg/ml vs. 566pg/ml, p=.02) and sTNFr1 (430 pg/ml vs. 264 pg/ml, p=.005). However, T. vaginalis infection was not associated with increased percent expression of CCR5+ T cells nor increased CD38 and HLADR activation compared to uninfected women. It was also not associated with increased expression of CCR5+ monocytes.

Conclusions: Among ESN T. vaginalis infection is associated with increased levels of genital pro-inflammatory/immune activation markers IL-8 and TNFr1, but was not associated with an increased percentage of activated endocervical T cells along the CD38 and HLADR pathways. Thus, while T.vaginalis infection may result in some reversal of the immune quiescent profile of ESN, enhanced recruitment of activated CD38 and HLADR expressing CD4+ cells into the endocervix may not be part of the mechanism by which Trichomonas infection alters HIV susceptibility in this unique subset of women.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus