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Determination of Seed Soundness in Conifers Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa Using Narrow-Multiband Spectral Imaging in the Short-Wavelength Infrared Range.

Matsuda O, Hara M, Tobita H, Yazaki K, Nakagawa T, Shimizu K, Uemura A, Utsugi H - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Regeneration of planted forests of Cryptomeria japonica (sugi) and Chamaecyparis obtuse (hinoki) is the pressing importance to the forest administration in Japan.Based on these observations, a reflectance index SQI, abbreviated for seed quality index, was formulated using reflectance at three narrow SWIR wavebands so that it represents the extent of the depression.Thus, the methods described are readily applicable toward low-cost seedling production in combination with single seed sowing technology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Regeneration of planted forests of Cryptomeria japonica (sugi) and Chamaecyparis obtuse (hinoki) is the pressing importance to the forest administration in Japan. Low seed germination rate of these species, however, has hampered low-cost production of their seedlings for reforestation. The primary cause of the low germinability has been attributed to highly frequent formation of anatomically unsound seeds, which are indistinguishable from sound germinable seeds by visible observation and other common criteria such as size and weight. To establish a method for sound seed selection in these species, hyperspectral imaging technique was used to identify a wavelength range where reflectance spectra differ clearly between sound and unsound seeds. In sound seeds of both species, reflectance in a narrow waveband centered at 1,730 nm, corresponding to a lipid absorption band in the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) range, was greatly depressed relative to that in adjacent wavebands on either side. Such depression was absent or less prominent in unsound seeds. Based on these observations, a reflectance index SQI, abbreviated for seed quality index, was formulated using reflectance at three narrow SWIR wavebands so that it represents the extent of the depression. SQI calculated from seed area-averaged reflectance spectra and spatial distribution patterns of pixelwise SQI within each seed area were both proven as reliable criteria for sound seed selection. Enrichment of sound seeds was accompanied by an increase in germination rate of the seed lot. Thus, the methods described are readily applicable toward low-cost seedling production in combination with single seed sowing technology.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

General features of sound and unsound seeds of Cryptomeria japonica (sugi) and Chamaecyparis obtusa (hinoki).
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pone.0128358.g003: General features of sound and unsound seeds of Cryptomeria japonica (sugi) and Chamaecyparis obtusa (hinoki).

Mentions: Among the 10 seed lots for each of sugi and hinoki, two for each were processed for image scanning in RGB format before subjected to a cutting test. Fig 3A compares the appearance of seeds that were later classified into three different groups. There appeared no visible features that helped us to estimate anatomical soundness of individual seeds. Size and weight of each seed group were also evaluated. As shown in Fig 3B to 3G, neither of these features served as effective measures to separate sound seeds out of unsorted seed lots. Although empty seeds, classified as others (highlighted by horizontal black bars in Fig 3B to 3G), were lighter in weight than sound seeds, especially when weight per unit size was compared (Fig 3F and 3G), they were quite rare in all seed lots examined in this study. Hence, exclusion of empty seeds by such means as sink/float and wind separations will not be an adequate solution to improve germination rate of sugi and hinoki seed lots.


Determination of Seed Soundness in Conifers Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa Using Narrow-Multiband Spectral Imaging in the Short-Wavelength Infrared Range.

Matsuda O, Hara M, Tobita H, Yazaki K, Nakagawa T, Shimizu K, Uemura A, Utsugi H - PLoS ONE (2015)

General features of sound and unsound seeds of Cryptomeria japonica (sugi) and Chamaecyparis obtusa (hinoki).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4470962&req=5

pone.0128358.g003: General features of sound and unsound seeds of Cryptomeria japonica (sugi) and Chamaecyparis obtusa (hinoki).
Mentions: Among the 10 seed lots for each of sugi and hinoki, two for each were processed for image scanning in RGB format before subjected to a cutting test. Fig 3A compares the appearance of seeds that were later classified into three different groups. There appeared no visible features that helped us to estimate anatomical soundness of individual seeds. Size and weight of each seed group were also evaluated. As shown in Fig 3B to 3G, neither of these features served as effective measures to separate sound seeds out of unsorted seed lots. Although empty seeds, classified as others (highlighted by horizontal black bars in Fig 3B to 3G), were lighter in weight than sound seeds, especially when weight per unit size was compared (Fig 3F and 3G), they were quite rare in all seed lots examined in this study. Hence, exclusion of empty seeds by such means as sink/float and wind separations will not be an adequate solution to improve germination rate of sugi and hinoki seed lots.

Bottom Line: Regeneration of planted forests of Cryptomeria japonica (sugi) and Chamaecyparis obtuse (hinoki) is the pressing importance to the forest administration in Japan.Based on these observations, a reflectance index SQI, abbreviated for seed quality index, was formulated using reflectance at three narrow SWIR wavebands so that it represents the extent of the depression.Thus, the methods described are readily applicable toward low-cost seedling production in combination with single seed sowing technology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Regeneration of planted forests of Cryptomeria japonica (sugi) and Chamaecyparis obtuse (hinoki) is the pressing importance to the forest administration in Japan. Low seed germination rate of these species, however, has hampered low-cost production of their seedlings for reforestation. The primary cause of the low germinability has been attributed to highly frequent formation of anatomically unsound seeds, which are indistinguishable from sound germinable seeds by visible observation and other common criteria such as size and weight. To establish a method for sound seed selection in these species, hyperspectral imaging technique was used to identify a wavelength range where reflectance spectra differ clearly between sound and unsound seeds. In sound seeds of both species, reflectance in a narrow waveband centered at 1,730 nm, corresponding to a lipid absorption band in the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) range, was greatly depressed relative to that in adjacent wavebands on either side. Such depression was absent or less prominent in unsound seeds. Based on these observations, a reflectance index SQI, abbreviated for seed quality index, was formulated using reflectance at three narrow SWIR wavebands so that it represents the extent of the depression. SQI calculated from seed area-averaged reflectance spectra and spatial distribution patterns of pixelwise SQI within each seed area were both proven as reliable criteria for sound seed selection. Enrichment of sound seeds was accompanied by an increase in germination rate of the seed lot. Thus, the methods described are readily applicable toward low-cost seedling production in combination with single seed sowing technology.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus