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Thymosin Beta-4 Induces Mouse Hair Growth.

Gao X, Liang H, Hou F, Zhang Z, Nuo M, Guo X, Liu D - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is known to induce hair growth and hair follicle (HF) development; however, its mechanism of action is unknown.Protein expression levels and the phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT were also examined by western blotting.Tβ4 appears to regulate P38/ERK/AKT signaling via its effect on VEGF expression, with a resultant effect on the speed of hair growth, the pattern of HFs and the number of hair shafts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Research Center for Animal Transgenic Biotechnology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China.

ABSTRACT
Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is known to induce hair growth and hair follicle (HF) development; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. We generated mice that overexpressed Tβ4 in the epidermis, as well as Tβ4 global knockout mice, to study the role of Tβ4 in HF development and explore the mechanism of Tβ4 on hair growth. To study Tβ4 function, we depilated control and experimental mice and made tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). To explore the effect of Tβ4 on hair growth and HF development, the mRNA and protein levels of Tβ4 and VEGF were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting in control and experimental mice. Protein expression levels and the phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT were also examined by western blotting. The results of depilation indicated that hair re-growth was faster in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, but slower in knockout mice. Histological examination revealed that Tβ4-overexpressing mice had a higher number of hair shafts and HFs clustered together to form groups, while the HFs of control mice and knockout mice were separate. Hair shafts in knockout mice were significantly reduced in number compared with control mice. Increased Tβ4 expression at the mRNA and protein levels was confirmed in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, which also had increased VEGF expression. On the other hand, knockout mice had reduced levels of VEGF expression. Mechanistically, Tβ4-overexpressing mice showed increased protein expression levels and phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT, whereas knockout mice had decreased levels of both expression and phosphorylation of these proteins. Tβ4 appears to regulate P38/ERK/AKT signaling via its effect on VEGF expression, with a resultant effect on the speed of hair growth, the pattern of HFs and the number of hair shafts.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The protein levels of P38, p-P38, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, AKT and p-AKT and the ratio of phosphorylated proteins in the corresponding proteins.(a-c) The protein levels of P38, p-P38, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, AKT and p-AKT are shown. α-Tubulin was used as the loading control. The molecular masses of P38 or p-P38, ERK1/2 or p-ERK1/2 and AKT or p-AKT were approximately 38 kDa, 42/44 kDa, 56 kDa, respectively. (A-C) The protein expression levels of these proteins were then analyzed by Image J software. Graphical representation demonstrating the protein expression and phosphorylation levels between the dorsal skin samples of the three groups obtained from western blotting assays. (D) The ratio of phosphorylated proteins is shown as 1 in WT mice. In the above figures, the results of one representative experiment of three independent experiments are presented. Each bar represents the mean ± SEM (n = 3). Different superscripts on the bar indicate a statistically significant difference (P < 0.01).
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pone.0130040.g004: The protein levels of P38, p-P38, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, AKT and p-AKT and the ratio of phosphorylated proteins in the corresponding proteins.(a-c) The protein levels of P38, p-P38, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, AKT and p-AKT are shown. α-Tubulin was used as the loading control. The molecular masses of P38 or p-P38, ERK1/2 or p-ERK1/2 and AKT or p-AKT were approximately 38 kDa, 42/44 kDa, 56 kDa, respectively. (A-C) The protein expression levels of these proteins were then analyzed by Image J software. Graphical representation demonstrating the protein expression and phosphorylation levels between the dorsal skin samples of the three groups obtained from western blotting assays. (D) The ratio of phosphorylated proteins is shown as 1 in WT mice. In the above figures, the results of one representative experiment of three independent experiments are presented. Each bar represents the mean ± SEM (n = 3). Different superscripts on the bar indicate a statistically significant difference (P < 0.01).

Mentions: In order to better understand the mechanistic link between Tβ4 and VEGF, we examined the expression levels of various different components of the MAPK signaling pathway in the dorsal skin of our experimental mice. Our results indicated that P38 and p-P38 were both significantly increased in KTP mice compared to WT mice (P < 0.01; Fig 4A and 4a). On the other hand, P38 expression was significantly reduced in KO vs. WT mice (P < 0.01); however, the level of p-P38 was also reduced and was not significantly different compared with WT mice (P> 0.05). With respect to ERK, the levels of ERK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 were significantly increased in KTP mice compared to WT mice (P < 0.01), whereas the expression of ERK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 were significantly decreased in KO mice (P < 0.01; Fig 4B and 4b).


Thymosin Beta-4 Induces Mouse Hair Growth.

Gao X, Liang H, Hou F, Zhang Z, Nuo M, Guo X, Liu D - PLoS ONE (2015)

The protein levels of P38, p-P38, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, AKT and p-AKT and the ratio of phosphorylated proteins in the corresponding proteins.(a-c) The protein levels of P38, p-P38, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, AKT and p-AKT are shown. α-Tubulin was used as the loading control. The molecular masses of P38 or p-P38, ERK1/2 or p-ERK1/2 and AKT or p-AKT were approximately 38 kDa, 42/44 kDa, 56 kDa, respectively. (A-C) The protein expression levels of these proteins were then analyzed by Image J software. Graphical representation demonstrating the protein expression and phosphorylation levels between the dorsal skin samples of the three groups obtained from western blotting assays. (D) The ratio of phosphorylated proteins is shown as 1 in WT mice. In the above figures, the results of one representative experiment of three independent experiments are presented. Each bar represents the mean ± SEM (n = 3). Different superscripts on the bar indicate a statistically significant difference (P < 0.01).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4470810&req=5

pone.0130040.g004: The protein levels of P38, p-P38, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, AKT and p-AKT and the ratio of phosphorylated proteins in the corresponding proteins.(a-c) The protein levels of P38, p-P38, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, AKT and p-AKT are shown. α-Tubulin was used as the loading control. The molecular masses of P38 or p-P38, ERK1/2 or p-ERK1/2 and AKT or p-AKT were approximately 38 kDa, 42/44 kDa, 56 kDa, respectively. (A-C) The protein expression levels of these proteins were then analyzed by Image J software. Graphical representation demonstrating the protein expression and phosphorylation levels between the dorsal skin samples of the three groups obtained from western blotting assays. (D) The ratio of phosphorylated proteins is shown as 1 in WT mice. In the above figures, the results of one representative experiment of three independent experiments are presented. Each bar represents the mean ± SEM (n = 3). Different superscripts on the bar indicate a statistically significant difference (P < 0.01).
Mentions: In order to better understand the mechanistic link between Tβ4 and VEGF, we examined the expression levels of various different components of the MAPK signaling pathway in the dorsal skin of our experimental mice. Our results indicated that P38 and p-P38 were both significantly increased in KTP mice compared to WT mice (P < 0.01; Fig 4A and 4a). On the other hand, P38 expression was significantly reduced in KO vs. WT mice (P < 0.01); however, the level of p-P38 was also reduced and was not significantly different compared with WT mice (P> 0.05). With respect to ERK, the levels of ERK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 were significantly increased in KTP mice compared to WT mice (P < 0.01), whereas the expression of ERK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 were significantly decreased in KO mice (P < 0.01; Fig 4B and 4b).

Bottom Line: Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is known to induce hair growth and hair follicle (HF) development; however, its mechanism of action is unknown.Protein expression levels and the phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT were also examined by western blotting.Tβ4 appears to regulate P38/ERK/AKT signaling via its effect on VEGF expression, with a resultant effect on the speed of hair growth, the pattern of HFs and the number of hair shafts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Research Center for Animal Transgenic Biotechnology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China.

ABSTRACT
Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is known to induce hair growth and hair follicle (HF) development; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. We generated mice that overexpressed Tβ4 in the epidermis, as well as Tβ4 global knockout mice, to study the role of Tβ4 in HF development and explore the mechanism of Tβ4 on hair growth. To study Tβ4 function, we depilated control and experimental mice and made tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). To explore the effect of Tβ4 on hair growth and HF development, the mRNA and protein levels of Tβ4 and VEGF were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting in control and experimental mice. Protein expression levels and the phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT were also examined by western blotting. The results of depilation indicated that hair re-growth was faster in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, but slower in knockout mice. Histological examination revealed that Tβ4-overexpressing mice had a higher number of hair shafts and HFs clustered together to form groups, while the HFs of control mice and knockout mice were separate. Hair shafts in knockout mice were significantly reduced in number compared with control mice. Increased Tβ4 expression at the mRNA and protein levels was confirmed in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, which also had increased VEGF expression. On the other hand, knockout mice had reduced levels of VEGF expression. Mechanistically, Tβ4-overexpressing mice showed increased protein expression levels and phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT, whereas knockout mice had decreased levels of both expression and phosphorylation of these proteins. Tβ4 appears to regulate P38/ERK/AKT signaling via its effect on VEGF expression, with a resultant effect on the speed of hair growth, the pattern of HFs and the number of hair shafts.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus