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Miocene Fossils Reveal Ancient Roots for New Zealand's Endemic Mystacina (Chiroptera) and Its Rainforest Habitat.

Hand SJ, Lee DE, Worthy TH, Archer M, Worthy JP, Tennyson AJ, Salisbury SW, Scofield RP, Mildenhall DC, Kennedy EM, Lindqvist JK - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Here, a new mystacinid is described from the early Miocene (19-16 Ma) St Bathans Fauna of Central Otago, South Island, New Zealand.Similarly, many of the arthropod prey of living Mystacina are recorded as fossils in the same area.Although none of the Miocene plant and arthropod species is extant, most are closely related to modern taxa, demonstrating potentially long-standing ecological associations with Mystacina.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Biological, Environmental and Earth Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

ABSTRACT
The New Zealand endemic bat family Mystacinidae comprises just two Recent species referred to a single genus, Mystacina. The family was once more diverse and widespread, with an additional six extinct taxa recorded from Australia and New Zealand. Here, a new mystacinid is described from the early Miocene (19-16 Ma) St Bathans Fauna of Central Otago, South Island, New Zealand. It is the first pre-Pleistocene record of the modern genus and it extends the evolutionary history of Mystacina back at least 16 million years. Extant Mystacina species occupy old-growth rainforest and are semi-terrestrial with an exceptionally broad omnivorous diet. The majority of the plants inhabited, pollinated, dispersed or eaten by modern Mystacina were well-established in southern New Zealand in the early Miocene, based on the fossil record from sites at or near where the bat fossils are found. Similarly, many of the arthropod prey of living Mystacina are recorded as fossils in the same area. Although none of the Miocene plant and arthropod species is extant, most are closely related to modern taxa, demonstrating potentially long-standing ecological associations with Mystacina.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Simple linear regression plots (OLS) with 95% confidence limits (blue lines) of dental and postcranial measurements of mystacinids (Table 1).A, Posterior upper premolar width (P4W) against first upper molar width (M1W). B, Distal humerus width (HDW) against first upper molar length (M1L). Square in each graph indicates M1 of Mystacina miocenalis plotted against value for the largest specimens of P4 and HD (respectively) for mystacinids previously recovered from St Bathans [7]. Mystacina tuberculata (filled circle), M. robusta (open circle), Icarops paradox (filled triangle), I. aenae (open triangle).
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pone.0128871.g003: Simple linear regression plots (OLS) with 95% confidence limits (blue lines) of dental and postcranial measurements of mystacinids (Table 1).A, Posterior upper premolar width (P4W) against first upper molar width (M1W). B, Distal humerus width (HDW) against first upper molar length (M1L). Square in each graph indicates M1 of Mystacina miocenalis plotted against value for the largest specimens of P4 and HD (respectively) for mystacinids previously recovered from St Bathans [7]. Mystacina tuberculata (filled circle), M. robusta (open circle), Icarops paradox (filled triangle), I. aenae (open triangle).

Mentions: Hand et al. [7] referred previously recovered mystacinid specimens from the St Bathans fossil deposit to Mystacinidae indet 1 & 2. These specimens consist of an upper canine, a lower canine, two posterior upper premolars, two distal humeri and two proximal radii. Although their familial identity is clear, they currently cannot be referred confidently to either Mystacina or Icarops. It is possible that these specimens may be referred ultimately to Mystacina miocenalis, but they are smaller than the same elements in M. robusta (and mostly even smaller than in M. tuberculata; Table 1), and simple linear regression analyses confirm that they are unlikely to belong to M. miocenalis (Fig 3).


Miocene Fossils Reveal Ancient Roots for New Zealand's Endemic Mystacina (Chiroptera) and Its Rainforest Habitat.

Hand SJ, Lee DE, Worthy TH, Archer M, Worthy JP, Tennyson AJ, Salisbury SW, Scofield RP, Mildenhall DC, Kennedy EM, Lindqvist JK - PLoS ONE (2015)

Simple linear regression plots (OLS) with 95% confidence limits (blue lines) of dental and postcranial measurements of mystacinids (Table 1).A, Posterior upper premolar width (P4W) against first upper molar width (M1W). B, Distal humerus width (HDW) against first upper molar length (M1L). Square in each graph indicates M1 of Mystacina miocenalis plotted against value for the largest specimens of P4 and HD (respectively) for mystacinids previously recovered from St Bathans [7]. Mystacina tuberculata (filled circle), M. robusta (open circle), Icarops paradox (filled triangle), I. aenae (open triangle).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4470663&req=5

pone.0128871.g003: Simple linear regression plots (OLS) with 95% confidence limits (blue lines) of dental and postcranial measurements of mystacinids (Table 1).A, Posterior upper premolar width (P4W) against first upper molar width (M1W). B, Distal humerus width (HDW) against first upper molar length (M1L). Square in each graph indicates M1 of Mystacina miocenalis plotted against value for the largest specimens of P4 and HD (respectively) for mystacinids previously recovered from St Bathans [7]. Mystacina tuberculata (filled circle), M. robusta (open circle), Icarops paradox (filled triangle), I. aenae (open triangle).
Mentions: Hand et al. [7] referred previously recovered mystacinid specimens from the St Bathans fossil deposit to Mystacinidae indet 1 & 2. These specimens consist of an upper canine, a lower canine, two posterior upper premolars, two distal humeri and two proximal radii. Although their familial identity is clear, they currently cannot be referred confidently to either Mystacina or Icarops. It is possible that these specimens may be referred ultimately to Mystacina miocenalis, but they are smaller than the same elements in M. robusta (and mostly even smaller than in M. tuberculata; Table 1), and simple linear regression analyses confirm that they are unlikely to belong to M. miocenalis (Fig 3).

Bottom Line: Here, a new mystacinid is described from the early Miocene (19-16 Ma) St Bathans Fauna of Central Otago, South Island, New Zealand.Similarly, many of the arthropod prey of living Mystacina are recorded as fossils in the same area.Although none of the Miocene plant and arthropod species is extant, most are closely related to modern taxa, demonstrating potentially long-standing ecological associations with Mystacina.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Biological, Environmental and Earth Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

ABSTRACT
The New Zealand endemic bat family Mystacinidae comprises just two Recent species referred to a single genus, Mystacina. The family was once more diverse and widespread, with an additional six extinct taxa recorded from Australia and New Zealand. Here, a new mystacinid is described from the early Miocene (19-16 Ma) St Bathans Fauna of Central Otago, South Island, New Zealand. It is the first pre-Pleistocene record of the modern genus and it extends the evolutionary history of Mystacina back at least 16 million years. Extant Mystacina species occupy old-growth rainforest and are semi-terrestrial with an exceptionally broad omnivorous diet. The majority of the plants inhabited, pollinated, dispersed or eaten by modern Mystacina were well-established in southern New Zealand in the early Miocene, based on the fossil record from sites at or near where the bat fossils are found. Similarly, many of the arthropod prey of living Mystacina are recorded as fossils in the same area. Although none of the Miocene plant and arthropod species is extant, most are closely related to modern taxa, demonstrating potentially long-standing ecological associations with Mystacina.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus