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Effect of Low Temperature and Wheat Winter-Hardiness on Survival of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici under Controlled Conditions.

Ma L, Qiao J, Kong X, Zou Y, Xu X, Chen X, Hu X - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) methods quantifying Pst DNA and RNA (cDNA) were developed and compared for the ability to quantify viable Pst in leaf tissues.The percentage of Pst biomass that was viable in detached and attached leaves under low temperatures decreased over time.The survival of Pst in cultivars with strong winter-hardiness at 0°C and -5°C was greater than those with weak winter-hardiness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A&F University, Taicheng Road 3, Yangling 712100, China.

ABSTRACT
Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most important diseases of wheat worldwide. Understanding the survival of Pst during the overwintering period is critical for predicting Pst epidemics in the spring. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) methods quantifying Pst DNA and RNA (cDNA) were developed and compared for the ability to quantify viable Pst in leaf tissues. Both qPCR of DNA and RNA can provide reliable measurement of viable Pst in plant tissues prior to the late sporulation stage for which qPCR of DNA gave a much higher estimate of fungal biomass than qPCR of RNA. The percentage of Pst biomass that was viable in detached and attached leaves under low temperatures decreased over time. Pst survived longer on attached leaves than on detached leaves. The survival of Pst in cultivars with strong winter-hardiness at 0°C and -5°C was greater than those with weak winter-hardiness. However, such differences in Pst survival among cultivars were negligible at -10, -15 and -20°C. Results indicated that Pst mycelia inside green leaves can also be killed by low temperatures rather than through death of green leaves under low temperatures. The relationship of Pst survival in attached leaves with temperature and winter-hardiness was well described by logistic models. Further field evaluation is necessary to assess whether inclusion of other factors such as moisture and snow cover could improve the model performance in predicting Pst overwintering potential, and hence the epidemic in spring.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Quantified Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in inoculated wheat leaves (cv. Mingxian 169) from day 0 to day 30 after inoculation using qPCR of DNA and RNA (cDNA).Urediniospores on the leaf surface were removed through washing leaves with distilled water. On day 20, more than 50% leaf area senesced, and on day 30, the leaves were completely senesced. The experiment was done three times. The vertical bar of a mean value represents the standard deviation among the three repeats of the experiment; significant treatment differences were based on the pooled residual error in the repeated measurement ANOVA. The level of quantified Pst DNA with “**” on 8, 9, 10, 20 and 30 days was significantly different from that based on the RNA quantification at P = 0.01. There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences between quantified levels of Pst DNA and RNA on other days.
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pone.0130691.g005: Quantified Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in inoculated wheat leaves (cv. Mingxian 169) from day 0 to day 30 after inoculation using qPCR of DNA and RNA (cDNA).Urediniospores on the leaf surface were removed through washing leaves with distilled water. On day 20, more than 50% leaf area senesced, and on day 30, the leaves were completely senesced. The experiment was done three times. The vertical bar of a mean value represents the standard deviation among the three repeats of the experiment; significant treatment differences were based on the pooled residual error in the repeated measurement ANOVA. The level of quantified Pst DNA with “**” on 8, 9, 10, 20 and 30 days was significantly different from that based on the RNA quantification at P = 0.01. There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences between quantified levels of Pst DNA and RNA on other days.

Mentions: Initially, quantified DNA and RNA followed a similar trend—increasing gradually over time and reaching a peak around day 10 (Fig 5). The overall level of DNA was greater (P < 0.05) than RNA from day 7 onwards. The greater increase in DNA from day 7 to day 10, relative to RNA, led to significant (P < 0.01) interactions between DNA-RNA differences and time (0–11 days). On day 20 and 30, RNA concentration decreased to nearly zero, in contrast to the sharp increase in DNA concentration (Fig 5). This increase in DNA and decrease in RNA on day 20 and 30 led to an even greater difference between DNA and RNA (P < 0.01) and also the interaction between DNA-RNA difference and time (P < 0.001) when all data were analyzed together. On day 20, more than 50% leaf area senesced (S5A Fig), and on day 30 the leaves were completely senesced (S5B Fig).


Effect of Low Temperature and Wheat Winter-Hardiness on Survival of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici under Controlled Conditions.

Ma L, Qiao J, Kong X, Zou Y, Xu X, Chen X, Hu X - PLoS ONE (2015)

Quantified Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in inoculated wheat leaves (cv. Mingxian 169) from day 0 to day 30 after inoculation using qPCR of DNA and RNA (cDNA).Urediniospores on the leaf surface were removed through washing leaves with distilled water. On day 20, more than 50% leaf area senesced, and on day 30, the leaves were completely senesced. The experiment was done three times. The vertical bar of a mean value represents the standard deviation among the three repeats of the experiment; significant treatment differences were based on the pooled residual error in the repeated measurement ANOVA. The level of quantified Pst DNA with “**” on 8, 9, 10, 20 and 30 days was significantly different from that based on the RNA quantification at P = 0.01. There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences between quantified levels of Pst DNA and RNA on other days.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4470655&req=5

pone.0130691.g005: Quantified Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in inoculated wheat leaves (cv. Mingxian 169) from day 0 to day 30 after inoculation using qPCR of DNA and RNA (cDNA).Urediniospores on the leaf surface were removed through washing leaves with distilled water. On day 20, more than 50% leaf area senesced, and on day 30, the leaves were completely senesced. The experiment was done three times. The vertical bar of a mean value represents the standard deviation among the three repeats of the experiment; significant treatment differences were based on the pooled residual error in the repeated measurement ANOVA. The level of quantified Pst DNA with “**” on 8, 9, 10, 20 and 30 days was significantly different from that based on the RNA quantification at P = 0.01. There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences between quantified levels of Pst DNA and RNA on other days.
Mentions: Initially, quantified DNA and RNA followed a similar trend—increasing gradually over time and reaching a peak around day 10 (Fig 5). The overall level of DNA was greater (P < 0.05) than RNA from day 7 onwards. The greater increase in DNA from day 7 to day 10, relative to RNA, led to significant (P < 0.01) interactions between DNA-RNA differences and time (0–11 days). On day 20 and 30, RNA concentration decreased to nearly zero, in contrast to the sharp increase in DNA concentration (Fig 5). This increase in DNA and decrease in RNA on day 20 and 30 led to an even greater difference between DNA and RNA (P < 0.01) and also the interaction between DNA-RNA difference and time (P < 0.001) when all data were analyzed together. On day 20, more than 50% leaf area senesced (S5A Fig), and on day 30 the leaves were completely senesced (S5B Fig).

Bottom Line: Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) methods quantifying Pst DNA and RNA (cDNA) were developed and compared for the ability to quantify viable Pst in leaf tissues.The percentage of Pst biomass that was viable in detached and attached leaves under low temperatures decreased over time.The survival of Pst in cultivars with strong winter-hardiness at 0°C and -5°C was greater than those with weak winter-hardiness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A&F University, Taicheng Road 3, Yangling 712100, China.

ABSTRACT
Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most important diseases of wheat worldwide. Understanding the survival of Pst during the overwintering period is critical for predicting Pst epidemics in the spring. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) methods quantifying Pst DNA and RNA (cDNA) were developed and compared for the ability to quantify viable Pst in leaf tissues. Both qPCR of DNA and RNA can provide reliable measurement of viable Pst in plant tissues prior to the late sporulation stage for which qPCR of DNA gave a much higher estimate of fungal biomass than qPCR of RNA. The percentage of Pst biomass that was viable in detached and attached leaves under low temperatures decreased over time. Pst survived longer on attached leaves than on detached leaves. The survival of Pst in cultivars with strong winter-hardiness at 0°C and -5°C was greater than those with weak winter-hardiness. However, such differences in Pst survival among cultivars were negligible at -10, -15 and -20°C. Results indicated that Pst mycelia inside green leaves can also be killed by low temperatures rather than through death of green leaves under low temperatures. The relationship of Pst survival in attached leaves with temperature and winter-hardiness was well described by logistic models. Further field evaluation is necessary to assess whether inclusion of other factors such as moisture and snow cover could improve the model performance in predicting Pst overwintering potential, and hence the epidemic in spring.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus