Limits...
Regular Exercise Enhances Task-Based Industriousness in Laboratory Rats.

Laurence NC, Labuschagne LG, Lura BG, Hillman KL - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Individuals vary greatly in their willingness to select and persist in effortful tasks, even when high-effort will knowingly result in high-reward.These increases in performance led to quicker reward obtainment and greater reward gain over time, and could not be accounted for simply by increased locomotor activity.Our results suggest that a basic exercise regimen can enhance effortful goal-directed behaviour in goal-directed tasks, which highlights a potential productivity benefit of staying physically active.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
Individuals vary greatly in their willingness to select and persist in effortful tasks, even when high-effort will knowingly result in high-reward. Individuals who select and successively complete effortful, goal-directed tasks can be described as industrious. Trying to increase one's industriousness is desirable from a productivity standpoint, yet intrinsically challenging given that effort expenditure is generally aversive. Here we show that in laboratory rats, a basic physical exercise regimen (20 min/day, five days/week) is sufficient to increase industriousness across a battery of subsequent testing tasks. Exercised rats outperformed their non-exercised counterparts in tasks designed to tax effort expenditure, strategic decision-making, problem solving and persistence. These increases in performance led to quicker reward obtainment and greater reward gain over time, and could not be accounted for simply by increased locomotor activity. Our results suggest that a basic exercise regimen can enhance effortful goal-directed behaviour in goal-directed tasks, which highlights a potential productivity benefit of staying physically active.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Toy Task.A) Across the five 10-minute sessions, the Exercise group spent more time working to remove food reward as compared to Control. B) The Exercise rats were quicker to obtain their first reward and (C) obtained more rewards over the course of the five day testing period as compared to Control. Data are shown as mean ± SEM; for each group n = 8.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4470589&req=5

pone.0129831.g004: Toy Task.A) Across the five 10-minute sessions, the Exercise group spent more time working to remove food reward as compared to Control. B) The Exercise rats were quicker to obtain their first reward and (C) obtained more rewards over the course of the five day testing period as compared to Control. Data are shown as mean ± SEM; for each group n = 8.

Mentions: While both groups showed initial interest in the toy and its contents, the Exercise rats spent more overall time working to remove the food reward as compared to Controls (Fig 4A; Group F(1,14) = 5.06, p = 0.04; Time F(4,56) = 5.83, p = 0.001). The Exercise rats were also quicker to obtain their first food reward each day as compared to Controls (Fig 4B; Group F(1,14) = 7.22, p = 0.02; Time F(4,56) = 3.62, p = 0.01). The Exercise rats achieved higher reward gain over the five day period (Fig 4C; Group F(1,14) = 4.82, p = 0.04; Time F(4,56) = 10.9, p<0.0001). A positive linear trend in time spent working was observed in the Control group (r2 0.98, slope 38.8±2.6, p<0.001), while a negative linear trend in time to first reward was observed in the Exercise group (r2 0.88, slope -25.9.8±5.6, p<0.001). Both groups exhibited a positive linear trend in reward gain across sessions (Exercise r2 0.97, slope 0.24±0.02, p = 0.002; Control r2 0.93, slope 0.34±0.06, p = 0.009).


Regular Exercise Enhances Task-Based Industriousness in Laboratory Rats.

Laurence NC, Labuschagne LG, Lura BG, Hillman KL - PLoS ONE (2015)

Toy Task.A) Across the five 10-minute sessions, the Exercise group spent more time working to remove food reward as compared to Control. B) The Exercise rats were quicker to obtain their first reward and (C) obtained more rewards over the course of the five day testing period as compared to Control. Data are shown as mean ± SEM; for each group n = 8.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4470589&req=5

pone.0129831.g004: Toy Task.A) Across the five 10-minute sessions, the Exercise group spent more time working to remove food reward as compared to Control. B) The Exercise rats were quicker to obtain their first reward and (C) obtained more rewards over the course of the five day testing period as compared to Control. Data are shown as mean ± SEM; for each group n = 8.
Mentions: While both groups showed initial interest in the toy and its contents, the Exercise rats spent more overall time working to remove the food reward as compared to Controls (Fig 4A; Group F(1,14) = 5.06, p = 0.04; Time F(4,56) = 5.83, p = 0.001). The Exercise rats were also quicker to obtain their first food reward each day as compared to Controls (Fig 4B; Group F(1,14) = 7.22, p = 0.02; Time F(4,56) = 3.62, p = 0.01). The Exercise rats achieved higher reward gain over the five day period (Fig 4C; Group F(1,14) = 4.82, p = 0.04; Time F(4,56) = 10.9, p<0.0001). A positive linear trend in time spent working was observed in the Control group (r2 0.98, slope 38.8±2.6, p<0.001), while a negative linear trend in time to first reward was observed in the Exercise group (r2 0.88, slope -25.9.8±5.6, p<0.001). Both groups exhibited a positive linear trend in reward gain across sessions (Exercise r2 0.97, slope 0.24±0.02, p = 0.002; Control r2 0.93, slope 0.34±0.06, p = 0.009).

Bottom Line: Individuals vary greatly in their willingness to select and persist in effortful tasks, even when high-effort will knowingly result in high-reward.These increases in performance led to quicker reward obtainment and greater reward gain over time, and could not be accounted for simply by increased locomotor activity.Our results suggest that a basic exercise regimen can enhance effortful goal-directed behaviour in goal-directed tasks, which highlights a potential productivity benefit of staying physically active.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
Individuals vary greatly in their willingness to select and persist in effortful tasks, even when high-effort will knowingly result in high-reward. Individuals who select and successively complete effortful, goal-directed tasks can be described as industrious. Trying to increase one's industriousness is desirable from a productivity standpoint, yet intrinsically challenging given that effort expenditure is generally aversive. Here we show that in laboratory rats, a basic physical exercise regimen (20 min/day, five days/week) is sufficient to increase industriousness across a battery of subsequent testing tasks. Exercised rats outperformed their non-exercised counterparts in tasks designed to tax effort expenditure, strategic decision-making, problem solving and persistence. These increases in performance led to quicker reward obtainment and greater reward gain over time, and could not be accounted for simply by increased locomotor activity. Our results suggest that a basic exercise regimen can enhance effortful goal-directed behaviour in goal-directed tasks, which highlights a potential productivity benefit of staying physically active.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus