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Artificial gravity as a countermeasure for mitigating physiological deconditioning during long-duration space missions.

Clément GR, Bukley AP, Paloski WH - Front Syst Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: In spite of the experience gained in human space flight since Yuri Gagarin's historical flight in 1961, there has yet to be identified a completely effective countermeasure for mitigating the effects of weightlessness on humans.Hence, the concept of artificial gravity is to provide a broad-spectrum replacement for the gravitational forces that naturally occur on the Earth's surface, thereby avoiding the physiological deconditioning that takes place in weightlessness.Because researchers have long been concerned by the adverse sensorimotor effects that occur in weightlessness as well as in rotating environments, additional study of the complex interactions among sensorimotor and other physiological systems in rotating environments must be undertaken both on Earth and in space before artificial gravity can be implemented.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wyle Science and Engineering Group Houston, TX, USA.

ABSTRACT
In spite of the experience gained in human space flight since Yuri Gagarin's historical flight in 1961, there has yet to be identified a completely effective countermeasure for mitigating the effects of weightlessness on humans. Were astronauts to embark upon a journey to Mars today, the 6-month exposure to weightlessness en route would leave them considerably debilitated, even with the implementation of the suite of piece-meal countermeasures currently employed. Continuous or intermittent exposure to simulated gravitational states on board the spacecraft while traveling to and from Mars, also known as artificial gravity, has the potential for enhancing adaptation to Mars gravity and re-adaptation to Earth gravity. Many physiological functions are adversely affected by the weightless environment of spaceflight because they are calibrated for normal, Earth's gravity. Hence, the concept of artificial gravity is to provide a broad-spectrum replacement for the gravitational forces that naturally occur on the Earth's surface, thereby avoiding the physiological deconditioning that takes place in weightlessness. Because researchers have long been concerned by the adverse sensorimotor effects that occur in weightlessness as well as in rotating environments, additional study of the complex interactions among sensorimotor and other physiological systems in rotating environments must be undertaken both on Earth and in space before artificial gravity can be implemented.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Constraints for short-radius centrifugation. On Earth, the actual forces exerted on the body during centrifugation are the resultant of the gravitational force (in blue) and the centrifugal (inertial) forces (in red). These gravito-inertial forces (in green) are larger than 1 G and tilted relative to vertical. In space, the centrifugal forces are the only forces generated by centrifugation and aligned with the longitudinal body axis. Note also the gravity gradient, i.e., the different magnitude of centrifugal force along the longitudinal body axis.
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Figure 3: Constraints for short-radius centrifugation. On Earth, the actual forces exerted on the body during centrifugation are the resultant of the gravitational force (in blue) and the centrifugal (inertial) forces (in red). These gravito-inertial forces (in green) are larger than 1 G and tilted relative to vertical. In space, the centrifugal forces are the only forces generated by centrifugation and aligned with the longitudinal body axis. Note also the gravity gradient, i.e., the different magnitude of centrifugal force along the longitudinal body axis.

Mentions: On a short-radius centrifuge, the subjects are generally lying supine with their head close to the axis of rotation and their feet directed outwards. During centrifugation in space, the subject is only exposed to the centrifugal force along their longitudinal body axis, referred to as artificial gravity. However, during centrifugation on Earth, centrifugal force combines with the gravitational force resulting in the so-called gravito-inertial force, which is both larger in magnitude than the centrifugal force itself, and tilted with respect to the longitudinal body axis (Figure 3).


Artificial gravity as a countermeasure for mitigating physiological deconditioning during long-duration space missions.

Clément GR, Bukley AP, Paloski WH - Front Syst Neurosci (2015)

Constraints for short-radius centrifugation. On Earth, the actual forces exerted on the body during centrifugation are the resultant of the gravitational force (in blue) and the centrifugal (inertial) forces (in red). These gravito-inertial forces (in green) are larger than 1 G and tilted relative to vertical. In space, the centrifugal forces are the only forces generated by centrifugation and aligned with the longitudinal body axis. Note also the gravity gradient, i.e., the different magnitude of centrifugal force along the longitudinal body axis.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4470275&req=5

Figure 3: Constraints for short-radius centrifugation. On Earth, the actual forces exerted on the body during centrifugation are the resultant of the gravitational force (in blue) and the centrifugal (inertial) forces (in red). These gravito-inertial forces (in green) are larger than 1 G and tilted relative to vertical. In space, the centrifugal forces are the only forces generated by centrifugation and aligned with the longitudinal body axis. Note also the gravity gradient, i.e., the different magnitude of centrifugal force along the longitudinal body axis.
Mentions: On a short-radius centrifuge, the subjects are generally lying supine with their head close to the axis of rotation and their feet directed outwards. During centrifugation in space, the subject is only exposed to the centrifugal force along their longitudinal body axis, referred to as artificial gravity. However, during centrifugation on Earth, centrifugal force combines with the gravitational force resulting in the so-called gravito-inertial force, which is both larger in magnitude than the centrifugal force itself, and tilted with respect to the longitudinal body axis (Figure 3).

Bottom Line: In spite of the experience gained in human space flight since Yuri Gagarin's historical flight in 1961, there has yet to be identified a completely effective countermeasure for mitigating the effects of weightlessness on humans.Hence, the concept of artificial gravity is to provide a broad-spectrum replacement for the gravitational forces that naturally occur on the Earth's surface, thereby avoiding the physiological deconditioning that takes place in weightlessness.Because researchers have long been concerned by the adverse sensorimotor effects that occur in weightlessness as well as in rotating environments, additional study of the complex interactions among sensorimotor and other physiological systems in rotating environments must be undertaken both on Earth and in space before artificial gravity can be implemented.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wyle Science and Engineering Group Houston, TX, USA.

ABSTRACT
In spite of the experience gained in human space flight since Yuri Gagarin's historical flight in 1961, there has yet to be identified a completely effective countermeasure for mitigating the effects of weightlessness on humans. Were astronauts to embark upon a journey to Mars today, the 6-month exposure to weightlessness en route would leave them considerably debilitated, even with the implementation of the suite of piece-meal countermeasures currently employed. Continuous or intermittent exposure to simulated gravitational states on board the spacecraft while traveling to and from Mars, also known as artificial gravity, has the potential for enhancing adaptation to Mars gravity and re-adaptation to Earth gravity. Many physiological functions are adversely affected by the weightless environment of spaceflight because they are calibrated for normal, Earth's gravity. Hence, the concept of artificial gravity is to provide a broad-spectrum replacement for the gravitational forces that naturally occur on the Earth's surface, thereby avoiding the physiological deconditioning that takes place in weightlessness. Because researchers have long been concerned by the adverse sensorimotor effects that occur in weightlessness as well as in rotating environments, additional study of the complex interactions among sensorimotor and other physiological systems in rotating environments must be undertaken both on Earth and in space before artificial gravity can be implemented.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus