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The start and development of epilepsy surgery in Europe: a historical review.

Schijns OE, Hoogland G, Kubben PL, Koehler PJ - Neurosurg Rev (2015)

Bottom Line: Epilepsy has not always been considered a brain disease, but was believed to be a demonic possession in the past.Therefore, trepanation was done not only for medical but also for religious or spiritual reasons, originating in the Neolithic period (3000 BC).The earliest documentation of trepanation for epilepsy is found in the writings of the Hippocratic Corpus and consisted mainly of just skull surgery.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurosurgery, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 5800, 6202 AZ, Maastricht, The Netherlands, o.schijns@mumc.nl.

ABSTRACT
Epilepsy has not always been considered a brain disease, but was believed to be a demonic possession in the past. Therefore, trepanation was done not only for medical but also for religious or spiritual reasons, originating in the Neolithic period (3000 BC). The earliest documentation of trepanation for epilepsy is found in the writings of the Hippocratic Corpus and consisted mainly of just skull surgery. The transition from skull surgery to brain surgery took place in the middle of the nineteenth century when the insight of epilepsy as a cortical disorder of the brain emerged. This led to the start of modern epilepsy surgery. The pioneer countries in which epilepsy surgery was performed in Europe were the UK, Germany, and The Netherlands. Neurosurgical forerunners like Sir Victor Horsley, William Macewen, Fedor Krause, and Otfrid Foerster started with "modern" epilepsy surgery. Initially, epilepsy surgery was mainly done with the purpose to resect traumatic lesions or large surface tumours. In the course of the twentieth century, this changed to highly specialized microscopic navigation-guided surgery to resect lesional and non-lesional epileptogenic cortex. The development of epilepsy surgery in Southern Europe, which has not been described until now, will be elaborated in this manuscript. To summarize, in this paper, we provide (1) a detailed description of the evolution of European epilepsy surgery with special emphasis on the pioneer countries; (2) novel, never published information about the development of epilepsy surgery in Southern Europe; and (3) we review the historical dichotomy of invasive electrode implantation strategy (Anglo-Saxon surface electrodes versus French-Italian stereoencephalography (SEEG) model).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic chronological trajectory “Development of Epileptology and Epilepsy surgery”
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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Fig7: Schematic chronological trajectory “Development of Epileptology and Epilepsy surgery”

Mentions: “Modern” epileptology and epilepsy surgery in Europe started (Fig. 7) in the second half of the nineteenth century synchronously in the UK with neurologist Hughlings Jackson in collaboration with neurosurgeon Sir Victor Horsley and in Germany with neurosurgeon Fedor Krause, inspired by the prior physiological work of neuropsychiatrist Eduard Hitzig. Hughlings Jackson was one of the first neurologists to suggest a causal relation between seizures and dysfunctional cortical neurons. At about the same time, Hitzig and Fritsch, in Berlin, demonstrated the cortical motor representations of the four extremities in the dog. The combination of both localization of functions by cortical electrostimulation in a clinical setting (Krause/Foerster) and experimental confirmation of this theory around the 1870s (Hitzig, Fritsch, Ferrier) has to be considered the forerunner traject of modern epilepsy surgery.Fig. 7


The start and development of epilepsy surgery in Europe: a historical review.

Schijns OE, Hoogland G, Kubben PL, Koehler PJ - Neurosurg Rev (2015)

Schematic chronological trajectory “Development of Epileptology and Epilepsy surgery”
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4469771&req=5

Fig7: Schematic chronological trajectory “Development of Epileptology and Epilepsy surgery”
Mentions: “Modern” epileptology and epilepsy surgery in Europe started (Fig. 7) in the second half of the nineteenth century synchronously in the UK with neurologist Hughlings Jackson in collaboration with neurosurgeon Sir Victor Horsley and in Germany with neurosurgeon Fedor Krause, inspired by the prior physiological work of neuropsychiatrist Eduard Hitzig. Hughlings Jackson was one of the first neurologists to suggest a causal relation between seizures and dysfunctional cortical neurons. At about the same time, Hitzig and Fritsch, in Berlin, demonstrated the cortical motor representations of the four extremities in the dog. The combination of both localization of functions by cortical electrostimulation in a clinical setting (Krause/Foerster) and experimental confirmation of this theory around the 1870s (Hitzig, Fritsch, Ferrier) has to be considered the forerunner traject of modern epilepsy surgery.Fig. 7

Bottom Line: Epilepsy has not always been considered a brain disease, but was believed to be a demonic possession in the past.Therefore, trepanation was done not only for medical but also for religious or spiritual reasons, originating in the Neolithic period (3000 BC).The earliest documentation of trepanation for epilepsy is found in the writings of the Hippocratic Corpus and consisted mainly of just skull surgery.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurosurgery, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 5800, 6202 AZ, Maastricht, The Netherlands, o.schijns@mumc.nl.

ABSTRACT
Epilepsy has not always been considered a brain disease, but was believed to be a demonic possession in the past. Therefore, trepanation was done not only for medical but also for religious or spiritual reasons, originating in the Neolithic period (3000 BC). The earliest documentation of trepanation for epilepsy is found in the writings of the Hippocratic Corpus and consisted mainly of just skull surgery. The transition from skull surgery to brain surgery took place in the middle of the nineteenth century when the insight of epilepsy as a cortical disorder of the brain emerged. This led to the start of modern epilepsy surgery. The pioneer countries in which epilepsy surgery was performed in Europe were the UK, Germany, and The Netherlands. Neurosurgical forerunners like Sir Victor Horsley, William Macewen, Fedor Krause, and Otfrid Foerster started with "modern" epilepsy surgery. Initially, epilepsy surgery was mainly done with the purpose to resect traumatic lesions or large surface tumours. In the course of the twentieth century, this changed to highly specialized microscopic navigation-guided surgery to resect lesional and non-lesional epileptogenic cortex. The development of epilepsy surgery in Southern Europe, which has not been described until now, will be elaborated in this manuscript. To summarize, in this paper, we provide (1) a detailed description of the evolution of European epilepsy surgery with special emphasis on the pioneer countries; (2) novel, never published information about the development of epilepsy surgery in Southern Europe; and (3) we review the historical dichotomy of invasive electrode implantation strategy (Anglo-Saxon surface electrodes versus French-Italian stereoencephalography (SEEG) model).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus