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Hypnosis-based psychodynamic treatment in ALS: a longitudinal study on patients and their caregivers.

Kleinbub JR, Palmieri A, Broggio A, Pagnini F, Benelli E, Sambin M, Sorarù G - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: The observed massive use of primitive defense mechanisms was found to have a reliable and constant buffer effect on psychopathological symptoms in both patients and caregivers.Our brief psychodynamic hypnosis-based treatment showed efficacy both at psychological and physical levels in patients with ALS, and was indirectly associated to long-lasting benefits in caregivers.Future directions should be oriented toward a convergence of our results and further psychological interventions, in order to delineate clinical best practices for ALS.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Philosophy, Sociology, Pedagogy and Applied Psychology, University of Padova Padova, Italy.

ABSTRACT

Background: Evidence of psychological treatment efficacy is strongly needed in ALS, particularly regarding long-term effects.

Methods: Fifteen patients participated in a hypnosis treatment and self-hypnosis training protocol after an in-depth psychological and neurological evaluation. Patients' primary caregivers and 15 one-by-one matched control patients were considered in the study. Measurements of anxiety, depression and quality of life (QoL) were collected at the baseline, post-treatment, and after 3 and 6 months from the intervention. Bayesian linear mixed-models were used to evaluate the impact of treatment and defense style on patients' anxiety, depression, QoL, and functional impairment (ALSFRS-r), as well as on caregivers' anxiety and depression.

Results: The statistical analyses revealed an improvement in psychological variables' scores immediately after the treatment. Amelioration in patients' and caregivers' anxiety as well as caregivers' depression, were found to persist at 3 and 6 months follow-ups. The observed massive use of primitive defense mechanisms was found to have a reliable and constant buffer effect on psychopathological symptoms in both patients and caregivers. Notably, treated patients decline in ALSFRS-r score was observed to be slower than that of control group's patients.

Discussion: Our brief psychodynamic hypnosis-based treatment showed efficacy both at psychological and physical levels in patients with ALS, and was indirectly associated to long-lasting benefits in caregivers. The implications of peculiar psychodynamic factors and mind-body techniques are discussed. Future directions should be oriented toward a convergence of our results and further psychological interventions, in order to delineate clinical best practices for ALS.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The computed posterior distribution of the true difference in means between experimental and control group decline at 6 months. Since zero lies outside the 95% HDI (the interval that contains the exact value with the most credibility), it can be inferred that the two groups' decline at 6 months is credibly different.
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Figure 7: The computed posterior distribution of the true difference in means between experimental and control group decline at 6 months. Since zero lies outside the 95% HDI (the interval that contains the exact value with the most credibility), it can be inferred that the two groups' decline at 6 months is credibly different.

Mentions: For both the patients' groups we computed ALSFRS-r difference scores between pre-treatment and the 6 month's follow up (Figure 6). Treatment (M = −3.98, SD = 3.49) and control group's (M = −8.64, SD = 4.80) scores were compared through Bayesian estimation. The computed posterior for the difference in groups' means showed a credible average difference of −4.63 with 95% HDI (−8.213, −1.02), which means a 99.3% probability of the real difference value to be smaller than zero (Figure 7). The computed Bayes Factor against the “no difference” model was 6.70, which indicates a substantial evidence in favor of the “difference” model.


Hypnosis-based psychodynamic treatment in ALS: a longitudinal study on patients and their caregivers.

Kleinbub JR, Palmieri A, Broggio A, Pagnini F, Benelli E, Sambin M, Sorarù G - Front Psychol (2015)

The computed posterior distribution of the true difference in means between experimental and control group decline at 6 months. Since zero lies outside the 95% HDI (the interval that contains the exact value with the most credibility), it can be inferred that the two groups' decline at 6 months is credibly different.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4469765&req=5

Figure 7: The computed posterior distribution of the true difference in means between experimental and control group decline at 6 months. Since zero lies outside the 95% HDI (the interval that contains the exact value with the most credibility), it can be inferred that the two groups' decline at 6 months is credibly different.
Mentions: For both the patients' groups we computed ALSFRS-r difference scores between pre-treatment and the 6 month's follow up (Figure 6). Treatment (M = −3.98, SD = 3.49) and control group's (M = −8.64, SD = 4.80) scores were compared through Bayesian estimation. The computed posterior for the difference in groups' means showed a credible average difference of −4.63 with 95% HDI (−8.213, −1.02), which means a 99.3% probability of the real difference value to be smaller than zero (Figure 7). The computed Bayes Factor against the “no difference” model was 6.70, which indicates a substantial evidence in favor of the “difference” model.

Bottom Line: The observed massive use of primitive defense mechanisms was found to have a reliable and constant buffer effect on psychopathological symptoms in both patients and caregivers.Our brief psychodynamic hypnosis-based treatment showed efficacy both at psychological and physical levels in patients with ALS, and was indirectly associated to long-lasting benefits in caregivers.Future directions should be oriented toward a convergence of our results and further psychological interventions, in order to delineate clinical best practices for ALS.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Philosophy, Sociology, Pedagogy and Applied Psychology, University of Padova Padova, Italy.

ABSTRACT

Background: Evidence of psychological treatment efficacy is strongly needed in ALS, particularly regarding long-term effects.

Methods: Fifteen patients participated in a hypnosis treatment and self-hypnosis training protocol after an in-depth psychological and neurological evaluation. Patients' primary caregivers and 15 one-by-one matched control patients were considered in the study. Measurements of anxiety, depression and quality of life (QoL) were collected at the baseline, post-treatment, and after 3 and 6 months from the intervention. Bayesian linear mixed-models were used to evaluate the impact of treatment and defense style on patients' anxiety, depression, QoL, and functional impairment (ALSFRS-r), as well as on caregivers' anxiety and depression.

Results: The statistical analyses revealed an improvement in psychological variables' scores immediately after the treatment. Amelioration in patients' and caregivers' anxiety as well as caregivers' depression, were found to persist at 3 and 6 months follow-ups. The observed massive use of primitive defense mechanisms was found to have a reliable and constant buffer effect on psychopathological symptoms in both patients and caregivers. Notably, treated patients decline in ALSFRS-r score was observed to be slower than that of control group's patients.

Discussion: Our brief psychodynamic hypnosis-based treatment showed efficacy both at psychological and physical levels in patients with ALS, and was indirectly associated to long-lasting benefits in caregivers. The implications of peculiar psychodynamic factors and mind-body techniques are discussed. Future directions should be oriented toward a convergence of our results and further psychological interventions, in order to delineate clinical best practices for ALS.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus