Limits...
Battling Phages: How Bacteria Defend against Viral Attack.

Seed KD - PLoS Pathog. (2015)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

For a discussion of the CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune system, readers are directed to several recent reviews... A successful phage infection starts with adsorption of the virus to a specific bacterial surface receptor... Phages that use pertactin as a receptor have been identified... Not surprisingly, these are temperate phages associated with clinical isolates of B. bronchiseptica... Sie systems are typically phage encoded and act to protect a lysogenized host from infection by other, often closely related, phages... The Sie systems that have been described mechanistically are membrane-anchored or membrane-associated proteins... The phage resistance strategies described thus far all result in survival of the bacterial cell facing viral challenge... Abi systems are often encoded by mobile genetic elements, including prophages and plasmids... These systems are mechanistically diverse and can act at any stage of phage development to decrease or eliminate the production of progeny viruses... SaPIs reside stably in the bacterial chromosome but are induced to excise, replicate, and package themselves upon infection by specific “helper” phages... As with the Abi systems, the infected cell dies as a consequence of phage infection, but phage reproduction is limited and SaPIs are spread to neighboring cells... Conversely, bacterial strategies to resist phage attack function by controlling phage numbers and composition, thus helping to establish a predator–prey dynamic equilibrium... Many phage resistance strategies depend on the use of horizontally acquired, “selfish” elements (plasmids and prophages) that can provide efficient barriers to phage infection but that do not compromise the physiological integrity of their host cell... Thus, many of the phage resistance strategies outlined here represent competitive advances between mobile parasitic elements that depend equally on their bacterial host for long-term survival.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

An overview of bacterial defense systems against phage.Each step of the phage lytic replication cycle is shown in italics. For simplicity, the cell wall and outer membrane (for gram-negative bacteria) is not shown. Bacteria can use a range of antiphage systems that can target all stages of the phage life cycle.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4465916&req=5

ppat.1004847.g001: An overview of bacterial defense systems against phage.Each step of the phage lytic replication cycle is shown in italics. For simplicity, the cell wall and outer membrane (for gram-negative bacteria) is not shown. Bacteria can use a range of antiphage systems that can target all stages of the phage life cycle.

Mentions: Bacteriophages (phages) are accomplished, bacteria-specific, viral predators with far-reaching impact: from the food and biotechnology industries [1] to global nutrient cycling [2] to human health and disease [3]; wherever bacteria thrive, it seems, so do predatory phages. In order to survive the constant onslaught of phage, bacteria have evolved mechanistically diverse defense strategies that act at every stage of the phage life cycle (Fig 1) [4,5]. Phages rapidly co-evolve to overcome these barriers, resulting in a constant, and often surprising, molecular arms race [6]. In this review, I highlight the spectrum of “innate” strategies used by bacteria to evade phage predation, with particular attention paid to more recent findings in the field. For a discussion of the CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune system, readers are directed to several recent reviews [4–6].


Battling Phages: How Bacteria Defend against Viral Attack.

Seed KD - PLoS Pathog. (2015)

An overview of bacterial defense systems against phage.Each step of the phage lytic replication cycle is shown in italics. For simplicity, the cell wall and outer membrane (for gram-negative bacteria) is not shown. Bacteria can use a range of antiphage systems that can target all stages of the phage life cycle.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4465916&req=5

ppat.1004847.g001: An overview of bacterial defense systems against phage.Each step of the phage lytic replication cycle is shown in italics. For simplicity, the cell wall and outer membrane (for gram-negative bacteria) is not shown. Bacteria can use a range of antiphage systems that can target all stages of the phage life cycle.
Mentions: Bacteriophages (phages) are accomplished, bacteria-specific, viral predators with far-reaching impact: from the food and biotechnology industries [1] to global nutrient cycling [2] to human health and disease [3]; wherever bacteria thrive, it seems, so do predatory phages. In order to survive the constant onslaught of phage, bacteria have evolved mechanistically diverse defense strategies that act at every stage of the phage life cycle (Fig 1) [4,5]. Phages rapidly co-evolve to overcome these barriers, resulting in a constant, and often surprising, molecular arms race [6]. In this review, I highlight the spectrum of “innate” strategies used by bacteria to evade phage predation, with particular attention paid to more recent findings in the field. For a discussion of the CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune system, readers are directed to several recent reviews [4–6].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

For a discussion of the CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune system, readers are directed to several recent reviews... A successful phage infection starts with adsorption of the virus to a specific bacterial surface receptor... Phages that use pertactin as a receptor have been identified... Not surprisingly, these are temperate phages associated with clinical isolates of B. bronchiseptica... Sie systems are typically phage encoded and act to protect a lysogenized host from infection by other, often closely related, phages... The Sie systems that have been described mechanistically are membrane-anchored or membrane-associated proteins... The phage resistance strategies described thus far all result in survival of the bacterial cell facing viral challenge... Abi systems are often encoded by mobile genetic elements, including prophages and plasmids... These systems are mechanistically diverse and can act at any stage of phage development to decrease or eliminate the production of progeny viruses... SaPIs reside stably in the bacterial chromosome but are induced to excise, replicate, and package themselves upon infection by specific “helper” phages... As with the Abi systems, the infected cell dies as a consequence of phage infection, but phage reproduction is limited and SaPIs are spread to neighboring cells... Conversely, bacterial strategies to resist phage attack function by controlling phage numbers and composition, thus helping to establish a predator–prey dynamic equilibrium... Many phage resistance strategies depend on the use of horizontally acquired, “selfish” elements (plasmids and prophages) that can provide efficient barriers to phage infection but that do not compromise the physiological integrity of their host cell... Thus, many of the phage resistance strategies outlined here represent competitive advances between mobile parasitic elements that depend equally on their bacterial host for long-term survival.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus