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Making Blood: The Haematopoietic Niche throughout Ontogeny.

Al-Drees MA, Yeo JH, Boumelhem BB, Antas VI, Brigden KW, Colonne CK, Fraser ST - Stem Cells Int (2015)

Bottom Line: These stem and progenitor cells migrate to a variety of anatomical locations through the conceptus until finally homing to the bone marrow shortly before birth.Under stress, extramedullary haematopoiesis can take place in regions that are typically lacking in blood-producing activity.A clearer understanding of the mechanism underlying each haematopoietic niche can be applied to improving ex vivo cultures of haematopoietic stem cells and potentially lead to new directions for transplantation medicine.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Discipline of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia ; Laboratory of Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Processing, Department of Medical Oncology, Medical Oncology and Stem Cell Transplant Center, Al-Sabah Medical Area, Kuwait.

ABSTRACT
Approximately one-quarter of all cells in the adult human body are blood cells. The haematopoietic system is therefore massive in scale and requires exquisite regulation to be maintained under homeostatic conditions. It must also be able to respond when needed, such as during infection or following blood loss, to produce more blood cells. Supporting cells serve to maintain haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during homeostatic and pathological conditions. This coalition of supportive cell types, organised in specific tissues, is termed the haematopoietic niche. Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells are generated in a number of distinct locations during mammalian embryogenesis. These stem and progenitor cells migrate to a variety of anatomical locations through the conceptus until finally homing to the bone marrow shortly before birth. Under stress, extramedullary haematopoiesis can take place in regions that are typically lacking in blood-producing activity. Our aim in this review is to examine blood production throughout the embryo and adult, under normal and pathological conditions, to identify commonalities and distinctions between each niche. A clearer understanding of the mechanism underlying each haematopoietic niche can be applied to improving ex vivo cultures of haematopoietic stem cells and potentially lead to new directions for transplantation medicine.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Timeline of haematopoiesis from early development to postnatal development in mice. This figure depicts the anatomical locations of haematopoiesis and the trafficking of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitor cells essential for maintaining haematopoiesis for life. Blood production begins at the mesoderm (blue, E6.0) and yolk sac (orange, all stages). From here, the first wave is initiated at the yolk sac blood islands (red, E7.0 and E8.5). Blood production is then shifted to the yolk sac and placenta (red, E9.5), with the latter providing blood to the foetus (pink) until birth. At E10.5, blood production initiates at the foetal liver and aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) (red). The spleen initiates blood production at E14.0 (red) and continues to be a site of haematopoiesis after birth at time of stress. At E18.0, blood production shifts to the bone marrow (red), which remains the dominant site of haematopoiesis for life. After birth, adipocytes (yellow) begin to accumulate within the bone marrow and progressively increase as the mouse ages. Early development pictures modified from [17, 18].
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fig1: Timeline of haematopoiesis from early development to postnatal development in mice. This figure depicts the anatomical locations of haematopoiesis and the trafficking of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitor cells essential for maintaining haematopoiesis for life. Blood production begins at the mesoderm (blue, E6.0) and yolk sac (orange, all stages). From here, the first wave is initiated at the yolk sac blood islands (red, E7.0 and E8.5). Blood production is then shifted to the yolk sac and placenta (red, E9.5), with the latter providing blood to the foetus (pink) until birth. At E10.5, blood production initiates at the foetal liver and aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) (red). The spleen initiates blood production at E14.0 (red) and continues to be a site of haematopoiesis after birth at time of stress. At E18.0, blood production shifts to the bone marrow (red), which remains the dominant site of haematopoiesis for life. After birth, adipocytes (yellow) begin to accumulate within the bone marrow and progressively increase as the mouse ages. Early development pictures modified from [17, 18].

Mentions: The generation of blood cells during embryogenesis is complicated by the fact that an increasing number of anatomical sites have been proposed to give rise to blood. Figure 1 shows the complex changes in anatomical location of blood production from the appearance of the first blood through to aged animals. For a thorough explanation therefore, we will be using the term conceptus, which includes the developing embryo or foetus as well as the placenta and the extraembryonic yolk sac. Mouse embryogenesis takes approximately 21 days from fertilisation to birth. Embryonic day of development will be abbreviated to E.


Making Blood: The Haematopoietic Niche throughout Ontogeny.

Al-Drees MA, Yeo JH, Boumelhem BB, Antas VI, Brigden KW, Colonne CK, Fraser ST - Stem Cells Int (2015)

Timeline of haematopoiesis from early development to postnatal development in mice. This figure depicts the anatomical locations of haematopoiesis and the trafficking of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitor cells essential for maintaining haematopoiesis for life. Blood production begins at the mesoderm (blue, E6.0) and yolk sac (orange, all stages). From here, the first wave is initiated at the yolk sac blood islands (red, E7.0 and E8.5). Blood production is then shifted to the yolk sac and placenta (red, E9.5), with the latter providing blood to the foetus (pink) until birth. At E10.5, blood production initiates at the foetal liver and aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) (red). The spleen initiates blood production at E14.0 (red) and continues to be a site of haematopoiesis after birth at time of stress. At E18.0, blood production shifts to the bone marrow (red), which remains the dominant site of haematopoiesis for life. After birth, adipocytes (yellow) begin to accumulate within the bone marrow and progressively increase as the mouse ages. Early development pictures modified from [17, 18].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4465740&req=5

fig1: Timeline of haematopoiesis from early development to postnatal development in mice. This figure depicts the anatomical locations of haematopoiesis and the trafficking of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitor cells essential for maintaining haematopoiesis for life. Blood production begins at the mesoderm (blue, E6.0) and yolk sac (orange, all stages). From here, the first wave is initiated at the yolk sac blood islands (red, E7.0 and E8.5). Blood production is then shifted to the yolk sac and placenta (red, E9.5), with the latter providing blood to the foetus (pink) until birth. At E10.5, blood production initiates at the foetal liver and aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) (red). The spleen initiates blood production at E14.0 (red) and continues to be a site of haematopoiesis after birth at time of stress. At E18.0, blood production shifts to the bone marrow (red), which remains the dominant site of haematopoiesis for life. After birth, adipocytes (yellow) begin to accumulate within the bone marrow and progressively increase as the mouse ages. Early development pictures modified from [17, 18].
Mentions: The generation of blood cells during embryogenesis is complicated by the fact that an increasing number of anatomical sites have been proposed to give rise to blood. Figure 1 shows the complex changes in anatomical location of blood production from the appearance of the first blood through to aged animals. For a thorough explanation therefore, we will be using the term conceptus, which includes the developing embryo or foetus as well as the placenta and the extraembryonic yolk sac. Mouse embryogenesis takes approximately 21 days from fertilisation to birth. Embryonic day of development will be abbreviated to E.

Bottom Line: These stem and progenitor cells migrate to a variety of anatomical locations through the conceptus until finally homing to the bone marrow shortly before birth.Under stress, extramedullary haematopoiesis can take place in regions that are typically lacking in blood-producing activity.A clearer understanding of the mechanism underlying each haematopoietic niche can be applied to improving ex vivo cultures of haematopoietic stem cells and potentially lead to new directions for transplantation medicine.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Discipline of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia ; Laboratory of Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Processing, Department of Medical Oncology, Medical Oncology and Stem Cell Transplant Center, Al-Sabah Medical Area, Kuwait.

ABSTRACT
Approximately one-quarter of all cells in the adult human body are blood cells. The haematopoietic system is therefore massive in scale and requires exquisite regulation to be maintained under homeostatic conditions. It must also be able to respond when needed, such as during infection or following blood loss, to produce more blood cells. Supporting cells serve to maintain haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during homeostatic and pathological conditions. This coalition of supportive cell types, organised in specific tissues, is termed the haematopoietic niche. Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells are generated in a number of distinct locations during mammalian embryogenesis. These stem and progenitor cells migrate to a variety of anatomical locations through the conceptus until finally homing to the bone marrow shortly before birth. Under stress, extramedullary haematopoiesis can take place in regions that are typically lacking in blood-producing activity. Our aim in this review is to examine blood production throughout the embryo and adult, under normal and pathological conditions, to identify commonalities and distinctions between each niche. A clearer understanding of the mechanism underlying each haematopoietic niche can be applied to improving ex vivo cultures of haematopoietic stem cells and potentially lead to new directions for transplantation medicine.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus