Limits...
Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa.

Braae UC, Saarnak CF, Mukaratirwa S, Devleesschauwer B, Magnussen P, Johansen MV - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Bottom Line: Presence of both parasites was confirmed in 124 districts in 17 countries.With the paucity of data, T. solium infection is grossly under-reported and expected to be more widespread than this study suggests.In areas where co-distribution occurs there is a need for increased emphasis on evaluation of integrated intervention approaches for these two helminth infections and allocation of resources for evaluating the extent of adverse effects caused by mass drug administration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Section for Parasitology and Aquatic Diseases, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1870, Frederiksberg, Denmark. braae@sund.ku.dk.

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to map the distribution of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa. These two major neglected tropical diseases are presumed to be widely distributed in Africa, but currently the level of co-distribution is unclear.

Methods: A literature search on T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis was performed to compile all known studies on the presence of T. solium and apparent prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in Africa. Studies were geo-referenced using an online gazetteer. A Bayesian framework was used to combine the epidemiological data on the apparent prevalence with external information on test characteristics to estimate informed district-level prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis. Districts with T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis presence were cross-referenced with the Global Neglected Tropical Diseases Database for schistosomiasis presence.

Results: The search strategies identified 141 reports of T. solium in Africa from 1985 to 2014 from a total of 476 districts in 29 countries, 20 with porcine cysticercosis, 22 with human cysticercosis, and 16 with taeniosis, in addition to 2 countries identified from OIE reports. All 31 countries were considered, on national scale, to have co-distribution with schistosomiasis. Presence of both parasites was confirmed in 124 districts in 17 countries. The informed prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis were estimated for 14 and 41 districts in 10 and 13 countries, respectively.

Conclusions: With the paucity of data, T. solium infection is grossly under-reported and expected to be more widespread than this study suggests. In areas where co-distribution occurs there is a need for increased emphasis on evaluation of integrated intervention approaches for these two helminth infections and allocation of resources for evaluating the extent of adverse effects caused by mass drug administration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Flow chart of the selection of literature for the informed prevalence estimations
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4465723&req=5

Fig2: Flow chart of the selection of literature for the informed prevalence estimations

Mentions: Informed district-level prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis was estimated from apparent prevalence estimates extracted from the literature and external information on the sensitivity and specificity of the applied diagnostic tests. Data was only extracted if applied diagnostic tests, denominators and the number of positive subjects were provided. If multiple studies existed from the same second-level administrative division, the mapping was based on survey year (most recent), and then highest informed prevalence (Fig. 2). For studies were informed prevalence could be estimated based on multiple test assessment [19], this more informed estimate was preferred over the corresponding single test estimates. Studies with sample sizes of less than 30 individuals were excluded. Bayesian inference was used to obtain the informed prevalence estimates [20], using the functions in the R package prevalence version 0.3.0 [21]. The parameters for the probabilistic constraints in terms of sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic tests used were obtained from key papers using the 95 % confidence intervals reported (Table 1). Further information and source code for both the single and multiple test informed prevalence assessments are available in the Additional file 1: Informed prevalence estimation.Fig. 2


Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa.

Braae UC, Saarnak CF, Mukaratirwa S, Devleesschauwer B, Magnussen P, Johansen MV - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Flow chart of the selection of literature for the informed prevalence estimations
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4465723&req=5

Fig2: Flow chart of the selection of literature for the informed prevalence estimations
Mentions: Informed district-level prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis was estimated from apparent prevalence estimates extracted from the literature and external information on the sensitivity and specificity of the applied diagnostic tests. Data was only extracted if applied diagnostic tests, denominators and the number of positive subjects were provided. If multiple studies existed from the same second-level administrative division, the mapping was based on survey year (most recent), and then highest informed prevalence (Fig. 2). For studies were informed prevalence could be estimated based on multiple test assessment [19], this more informed estimate was preferred over the corresponding single test estimates. Studies with sample sizes of less than 30 individuals were excluded. Bayesian inference was used to obtain the informed prevalence estimates [20], using the functions in the R package prevalence version 0.3.0 [21]. The parameters for the probabilistic constraints in terms of sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic tests used were obtained from key papers using the 95 % confidence intervals reported (Table 1). Further information and source code for both the single and multiple test informed prevalence assessments are available in the Additional file 1: Informed prevalence estimation.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: Presence of both parasites was confirmed in 124 districts in 17 countries.With the paucity of data, T. solium infection is grossly under-reported and expected to be more widespread than this study suggests.In areas where co-distribution occurs there is a need for increased emphasis on evaluation of integrated intervention approaches for these two helminth infections and allocation of resources for evaluating the extent of adverse effects caused by mass drug administration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Section for Parasitology and Aquatic Diseases, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1870, Frederiksberg, Denmark. braae@sund.ku.dk.

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to map the distribution of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa. These two major neglected tropical diseases are presumed to be widely distributed in Africa, but currently the level of co-distribution is unclear.

Methods: A literature search on T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis was performed to compile all known studies on the presence of T. solium and apparent prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in Africa. Studies were geo-referenced using an online gazetteer. A Bayesian framework was used to combine the epidemiological data on the apparent prevalence with external information on test characteristics to estimate informed district-level prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis. Districts with T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis presence were cross-referenced with the Global Neglected Tropical Diseases Database for schistosomiasis presence.

Results: The search strategies identified 141 reports of T. solium in Africa from 1985 to 2014 from a total of 476 districts in 29 countries, 20 with porcine cysticercosis, 22 with human cysticercosis, and 16 with taeniosis, in addition to 2 countries identified from OIE reports. All 31 countries were considered, on national scale, to have co-distribution with schistosomiasis. Presence of both parasites was confirmed in 124 districts in 17 countries. The informed prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis were estimated for 14 and 41 districts in 10 and 13 countries, respectively.

Conclusions: With the paucity of data, T. solium infection is grossly under-reported and expected to be more widespread than this study suggests. In areas where co-distribution occurs there is a need for increased emphasis on evaluation of integrated intervention approaches for these two helminth infections and allocation of resources for evaluating the extent of adverse effects caused by mass drug administration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus