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Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa.

Braae UC, Saarnak CF, Mukaratirwa S, Devleesschauwer B, Magnussen P, Johansen MV - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Bottom Line: Presence of both parasites was confirmed in 124 districts in 17 countries.With the paucity of data, T. solium infection is grossly under-reported and expected to be more widespread than this study suggests.In areas where co-distribution occurs there is a need for increased emphasis on evaluation of integrated intervention approaches for these two helminth infections and allocation of resources for evaluating the extent of adverse effects caused by mass drug administration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Section for Parasitology and Aquatic Diseases, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1870, Frederiksberg, Denmark. braae@sund.ku.dk.

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to map the distribution of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa. These two major neglected tropical diseases are presumed to be widely distributed in Africa, but currently the level of co-distribution is unclear.

Methods: A literature search on T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis was performed to compile all known studies on the presence of T. solium and apparent prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in Africa. Studies were geo-referenced using an online gazetteer. A Bayesian framework was used to combine the epidemiological data on the apparent prevalence with external information on test characteristics to estimate informed district-level prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis. Districts with T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis presence were cross-referenced with the Global Neglected Tropical Diseases Database for schistosomiasis presence.

Results: The search strategies identified 141 reports of T. solium in Africa from 1985 to 2014 from a total of 476 districts in 29 countries, 20 with porcine cysticercosis, 22 with human cysticercosis, and 16 with taeniosis, in addition to 2 countries identified from OIE reports. All 31 countries were considered, on national scale, to have co-distribution with schistosomiasis. Presence of both parasites was confirmed in 124 districts in 17 countries. The informed prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis were estimated for 14 and 41 districts in 10 and 13 countries, respectively.

Conclusions: With the paucity of data, T. solium infection is grossly under-reported and expected to be more widespread than this study suggests. In areas where co-distribution occurs there is a need for increased emphasis on evaluation of integrated intervention approaches for these two helminth infections and allocation of resources for evaluating the extent of adverse effects caused by mass drug administration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Diagram of literature search and countries where the studies were carried out
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Fig1: Diagram of literature search and countries where the studies were carried out

Mentions: Presence of T. solium in this study was defined as a documented case of disease related to the T. solium tapeworm, whether it was diagnosed and documented as porcine cysticercosis, taeniosis, or human cysticercosis. Initially we reviewed all titles and abstracts, if accessible, and excluded studies from outside Africa, studies based on questionnaire only, environmental studies, and studies with no reference to geographical location. Authors of articles where full-text were inaccessible were contacted. The remaining studies were excluded if full-text was not available or if based on experimental studies where location of infection could not be established (Fig. 1). Studies on human cysticercosis were only included if the authors provided approximate location of where the patient presumably caught the infection. For example, Pönnighaus and colleagues [18] reported a case of cutaneous cysticercosis in Malawi, where it was beyond doubt that the disease had been acquired within the country. Other reports such as NCC cases suspected to be autochthonous but not confirmed were omitted. In order to reduce the risk of including T. saginata infections, studies reporting taeniosis, but without confirmation of the T. solium tapeworm, were only included if reports of porcine cysticercosis could be found for the respective country or if the OIE reported porcine cysticercosis to be present in the respective country.Fig. 1


Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa.

Braae UC, Saarnak CF, Mukaratirwa S, Devleesschauwer B, Magnussen P, Johansen MV - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Diagram of literature search and countries where the studies were carried out
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4465723&req=5

Fig1: Diagram of literature search and countries where the studies were carried out
Mentions: Presence of T. solium in this study was defined as a documented case of disease related to the T. solium tapeworm, whether it was diagnosed and documented as porcine cysticercosis, taeniosis, or human cysticercosis. Initially we reviewed all titles and abstracts, if accessible, and excluded studies from outside Africa, studies based on questionnaire only, environmental studies, and studies with no reference to geographical location. Authors of articles where full-text were inaccessible were contacted. The remaining studies were excluded if full-text was not available or if based on experimental studies where location of infection could not be established (Fig. 1). Studies on human cysticercosis were only included if the authors provided approximate location of where the patient presumably caught the infection. For example, Pönnighaus and colleagues [18] reported a case of cutaneous cysticercosis in Malawi, where it was beyond doubt that the disease had been acquired within the country. Other reports such as NCC cases suspected to be autochthonous but not confirmed were omitted. In order to reduce the risk of including T. saginata infections, studies reporting taeniosis, but without confirmation of the T. solium tapeworm, were only included if reports of porcine cysticercosis could be found for the respective country or if the OIE reported porcine cysticercosis to be present in the respective country.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Presence of both parasites was confirmed in 124 districts in 17 countries.With the paucity of data, T. solium infection is grossly under-reported and expected to be more widespread than this study suggests.In areas where co-distribution occurs there is a need for increased emphasis on evaluation of integrated intervention approaches for these two helminth infections and allocation of resources for evaluating the extent of adverse effects caused by mass drug administration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Section for Parasitology and Aquatic Diseases, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1870, Frederiksberg, Denmark. braae@sund.ku.dk.

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to map the distribution of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa. These two major neglected tropical diseases are presumed to be widely distributed in Africa, but currently the level of co-distribution is unclear.

Methods: A literature search on T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis was performed to compile all known studies on the presence of T. solium and apparent prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in Africa. Studies were geo-referenced using an online gazetteer. A Bayesian framework was used to combine the epidemiological data on the apparent prevalence with external information on test characteristics to estimate informed district-level prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis. Districts with T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis presence were cross-referenced with the Global Neglected Tropical Diseases Database for schistosomiasis presence.

Results: The search strategies identified 141 reports of T. solium in Africa from 1985 to 2014 from a total of 476 districts in 29 countries, 20 with porcine cysticercosis, 22 with human cysticercosis, and 16 with taeniosis, in addition to 2 countries identified from OIE reports. All 31 countries were considered, on national scale, to have co-distribution with schistosomiasis. Presence of both parasites was confirmed in 124 districts in 17 countries. The informed prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis were estimated for 14 and 41 districts in 10 and 13 countries, respectively.

Conclusions: With the paucity of data, T. solium infection is grossly under-reported and expected to be more widespread than this study suggests. In areas where co-distribution occurs there is a need for increased emphasis on evaluation of integrated intervention approaches for these two helminth infections and allocation of resources for evaluating the extent of adverse effects caused by mass drug administration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus