Limits...
Exotic Fish in Exotic Plantations: A Multi-Scale Approach to Understand Amphibian Occurrence in the Mediterranean Region.

Cruz J, Sarmento P, Carretero MA, White PC - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Models with a combination of covariates at the different spatial scales had a stronger support than those at individual scales.Eucalypt plantations had a negative effect on the occurrence of the newt Lissotriton boscai and anurans Hyla arborea/meridionalis, but had a positive effect on the presence of Salamandra salamandra, while no effect on any of the other species was detected.In conclusion, eucalypts had limited effects on the amphibian community at the intermediate and broad scales, but predatory fish had a major impact when considering all the scales combined.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom; CIBIO Research Centre in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources, InBIO, Universidade do Porto, Campus Agrário de Vairão, Rua Padre Armando Quintas, 7. 4485-661 Vairão, Vila do Conde, Portugal.

ABSTRACT
Globally, amphibian populations are threatened by a diverse range of factors including habitat destruction and alteration. Forestry practices have been linked with low diversity and abundance of amphibians. The effect of exotic Eucalyptus spp. plantations on amphibian communities has been studied in a number of biodiversity hotspots, but little is known of its impact in the Mediterranean region. Here, we identify the environmental factors influencing the presence of six species of amphibians (the Caudata Pleurodeles waltl, Salamandra salamandra, Lissotriton boscai, Triturus marmoratus and the anurans Pelobates cultripes and Hyla arborea/meridionalis) occupying 88 ponds. The study was conducted in a Mediterranean landscape dominated by eucalypt plantations alternated with traditional use (agricultural, montados and native forest) at three different scales: local (pond), intermediate (400 metres radius buffer) and broad (1000 metres radius buffer). Using the Akaike Information Criterion for small samples (AICc), we selected the top-ranked models for estimating the probability of occurrence of each species at each spatial scale separately and across all three spatial scales, using a combination of covariates from the different magnitudes. Models with a combination of covariates at the different spatial scales had a stronger support than those at individual scales. The presence of predatory fish in a pond had a strong effect on Caudata presence. Permanent ponds were selected by Hyla arborea/meridionalis over temporary ponds. Species occurrence was not increased by a higher density of streams, but the density of ponds impacted negatively on Lissotriton boscai. The proximity of ponds occupied by their conspecifics had a positive effect on the occurrence of Lissotriton boscai and Pleurodeles waltl. Eucalypt plantations had a negative effect on the occurrence of the newt Lissotriton boscai and anurans Hyla arborea/meridionalis, but had a positive effect on the presence of Salamandra salamandra, while no effect on any of the other species was detected. In conclusion, eucalypts had limited effects on the amphibian community at the intermediate and broad scales, but predatory fish had a major impact when considering all the scales combined. The over-riding importance of introduced fish as a negative impact suggests that forest managers should prevent new fish introductions and eradicate fish from already-occupied ponds whenever possible.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The location of the study area.Distribution of the 88 ponds surveyed monthly between February and June 2011 in central-east Portugal. There were three major study sites distributed in the region: Site A, with 67 ponds; Site B: 2 ponds; Site C: 19 ponds. Each site was divided into subsets (FC, SM, SRIN, CAT, CF. FR, MG, GAL), according to geographical, topographical or barrier features.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4465696&req=5

pone.0129891.g001: The location of the study area.Distribution of the 88 ponds surveyed monthly between February and June 2011 in central-east Portugal. There were three major study sites distributed in the region: Site A, with 67 ponds; Site B: 2 ponds; Site C: 19 ponds. Each site was divided into subsets (FC, SM, SRIN, CAT, CF. FR, MG, GAL), according to geographical, topographical or barrier features.

Mentions: In the study area, the forest land cover is dominated by eucalypt (Eucalyptus globulus) plantations (36%), with different age stands, natural forest of cork oak (Quercus suber) and Holm oak (Quercus ilex), Maritime pine plantations, scrubland areas dominated by Cytisus spp., Cistus spp. and Erica spp. (all comprising 23%), and montados (oak savannah-like woodland) (16%). In addition to forestry, the landscape is used patchily for livestock grazing, olive (Olea europaea) groves, wheat (Triticum spp.) production, and small-scale subsistence agriculture (24%) (Fig 1). Most of the eucalypt stands are on their third rotation, planted for the first time in the mid-1970s. Each rotation lasts between 12 to 16 years depending on site productivity and plantations are managed by coppicing. The montados in the study area are actively exploited, with cattle grazing and cork extraction.


Exotic Fish in Exotic Plantations: A Multi-Scale Approach to Understand Amphibian Occurrence in the Mediterranean Region.

Cruz J, Sarmento P, Carretero MA, White PC - PLoS ONE (2015)

The location of the study area.Distribution of the 88 ponds surveyed monthly between February and June 2011 in central-east Portugal. There were three major study sites distributed in the region: Site A, with 67 ponds; Site B: 2 ponds; Site C: 19 ponds. Each site was divided into subsets (FC, SM, SRIN, CAT, CF. FR, MG, GAL), according to geographical, topographical or barrier features.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4465696&req=5

pone.0129891.g001: The location of the study area.Distribution of the 88 ponds surveyed monthly between February and June 2011 in central-east Portugal. There were three major study sites distributed in the region: Site A, with 67 ponds; Site B: 2 ponds; Site C: 19 ponds. Each site was divided into subsets (FC, SM, SRIN, CAT, CF. FR, MG, GAL), according to geographical, topographical or barrier features.
Mentions: In the study area, the forest land cover is dominated by eucalypt (Eucalyptus globulus) plantations (36%), with different age stands, natural forest of cork oak (Quercus suber) and Holm oak (Quercus ilex), Maritime pine plantations, scrubland areas dominated by Cytisus spp., Cistus spp. and Erica spp. (all comprising 23%), and montados (oak savannah-like woodland) (16%). In addition to forestry, the landscape is used patchily for livestock grazing, olive (Olea europaea) groves, wheat (Triticum spp.) production, and small-scale subsistence agriculture (24%) (Fig 1). Most of the eucalypt stands are on their third rotation, planted for the first time in the mid-1970s. Each rotation lasts between 12 to 16 years depending on site productivity and plantations are managed by coppicing. The montados in the study area are actively exploited, with cattle grazing and cork extraction.

Bottom Line: Models with a combination of covariates at the different spatial scales had a stronger support than those at individual scales.Eucalypt plantations had a negative effect on the occurrence of the newt Lissotriton boscai and anurans Hyla arborea/meridionalis, but had a positive effect on the presence of Salamandra salamandra, while no effect on any of the other species was detected.In conclusion, eucalypts had limited effects on the amphibian community at the intermediate and broad scales, but predatory fish had a major impact when considering all the scales combined.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom; CIBIO Research Centre in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources, InBIO, Universidade do Porto, Campus Agrário de Vairão, Rua Padre Armando Quintas, 7. 4485-661 Vairão, Vila do Conde, Portugal.

ABSTRACT
Globally, amphibian populations are threatened by a diverse range of factors including habitat destruction and alteration. Forestry practices have been linked with low diversity and abundance of amphibians. The effect of exotic Eucalyptus spp. plantations on amphibian communities has been studied in a number of biodiversity hotspots, but little is known of its impact in the Mediterranean region. Here, we identify the environmental factors influencing the presence of six species of amphibians (the Caudata Pleurodeles waltl, Salamandra salamandra, Lissotriton boscai, Triturus marmoratus and the anurans Pelobates cultripes and Hyla arborea/meridionalis) occupying 88 ponds. The study was conducted in a Mediterranean landscape dominated by eucalypt plantations alternated with traditional use (agricultural, montados and native forest) at three different scales: local (pond), intermediate (400 metres radius buffer) and broad (1000 metres radius buffer). Using the Akaike Information Criterion for small samples (AICc), we selected the top-ranked models for estimating the probability of occurrence of each species at each spatial scale separately and across all three spatial scales, using a combination of covariates from the different magnitudes. Models with a combination of covariates at the different spatial scales had a stronger support than those at individual scales. The presence of predatory fish in a pond had a strong effect on Caudata presence. Permanent ponds were selected by Hyla arborea/meridionalis over temporary ponds. Species occurrence was not increased by a higher density of streams, but the density of ponds impacted negatively on Lissotriton boscai. The proximity of ponds occupied by their conspecifics had a positive effect on the occurrence of Lissotriton boscai and Pleurodeles waltl. Eucalypt plantations had a negative effect on the occurrence of the newt Lissotriton boscai and anurans Hyla arborea/meridionalis, but had a positive effect on the presence of Salamandra salamandra, while no effect on any of the other species was detected. In conclusion, eucalypts had limited effects on the amphibian community at the intermediate and broad scales, but predatory fish had a major impact when considering all the scales combined. The over-riding importance of introduced fish as a negative impact suggests that forest managers should prevent new fish introductions and eradicate fish from already-occupied ponds whenever possible.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus