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Molecular Biogeography of Tribe Thermopsideae (Leguminosae): A Madrean-Tethyan Disjunction Pattern with an African Origin of Core Genistoides.

Zhang ML, Huang JF, Sanderson SC, Yan P, Wu YH, Pan BR - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: The results indicate that the core genistoides most likely originated in Africa during the Eocene to Oligocene, ca. 55-30 Ma, and dispersed eastward to Central Asia at ca. 33.47 Ma.Divergences in East Asia, Central Asia, the Mediterranean, and so forth, within Eurasia, except for Ammopiptanthus, are shown to be dispersals from the QTP.The onset of adaptive radiation at the center of the tribe, with diversification of most species in Thermopsis and Piptanthus at ca. 4-0.85 Ma in Tibet and adjacent regions, seems to have resulted from intense northern QTP uplift during the latter Miocene to Pleistocene.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Biogeography and Bioresource in Arid Land, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011, China ; Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China.

ABSTRACT
Thermopsideae has 45 species and exhibits a series of interesting biogeographical distribution patterns, such as Madrean-Tethyan disjunction and East Asia-North America disjunction, with a center of endemism in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (QTP) and Central Asia. Phylogenetic analysis in this paper employed maximum likelihood using ITS, rps16, psbA-trnH, and trnL-F sequence data; biogeographical approaches included BEAST molecular dating and Bayesian dispersal and vicariance analysis (S-DIVA). The results indicate that the core genistoides most likely originated in Africa during the Eocene to Oligocene, ca. 55-30 Ma, and dispersed eastward to Central Asia at ca. 33.47 Ma. The origin of Thermopsideae is inferred as Central Asian and dated to ca. 28.81 Ma. Ammopiptanthus is revealed to be a relic. Birth of the ancestor of Thermopsideae coincided with shrinkage of the Paratethys Sea at ca. 30 Ma in the Oligocene. The Himalayan motion of QTP uplift of ca. 20 Ma most likely drove the diversification between Central Asia and North America. Divergences in East Asia, Central Asia, the Mediterranean, and so forth, within Eurasia, except for Ammopiptanthus, are shown to be dispersals from the QTP. The onset of adaptive radiation at the center of the tribe, with diversification of most species in Thermopsis and Piptanthus at ca. 4-0.85 Ma in Tibet and adjacent regions, seems to have resulted from intense northern QTP uplift during the latter Miocene to Pleistocene.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Chronogram of relaxed Bayesian BEAST on the basis of the ITS dataset. Estimated times (Ma) with 95% HPD credibility intervals at concerned nodes were 1 : 54.43 (53.04–58.85), 2 : 39.45 (16.98–54.54), 3 : 33.47, 4 : 26.51 (13.59–42.87), 5 : 21.91 (7.09–23.65), 6 : 11.89 (4.78–15.64), 7 : 28.81 (10.95–41.02), 8 : 20.32 (6.9–22.98), 9 : 5.48 (2.99–10.81), 10 : 6.5 (3.38–11.11), 11 : 4, 12 : 4.9 (1.6–6.89), 13 : 3.08 (0.26–3.2), and 14 : 0.97 (0.46–2.8). Bootstrap support values > 50% above branches and posterior probability values > 0.5 below branches are indicated. “W” behind species name means species with the sequence data come from GenBank produced by Wang et al. [14]. S-DIVA optimal reconstruction of hypothesized ancestral areas at nodes and 10 dispersals with vertical line on branches are illustrated.
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fig2: Chronogram of relaxed Bayesian BEAST on the basis of the ITS dataset. Estimated times (Ma) with 95% HPD credibility intervals at concerned nodes were 1 : 54.43 (53.04–58.85), 2 : 39.45 (16.98–54.54), 3 : 33.47, 4 : 26.51 (13.59–42.87), 5 : 21.91 (7.09–23.65), 6 : 11.89 (4.78–15.64), 7 : 28.81 (10.95–41.02), 8 : 20.32 (6.9–22.98), 9 : 5.48 (2.99–10.81), 10 : 6.5 (3.38–11.11), 11 : 4, 12 : 4.9 (1.6–6.89), 13 : 3.08 (0.26–3.2), and 14 : 0.97 (0.46–2.8). Bootstrap support values > 50% above branches and posterior probability values > 0.5 below branches are indicated. “W” behind species name means species with the sequence data come from GenBank produced by Wang et al. [14]. S-DIVA optimal reconstruction of hypothesized ancestral areas at nodes and 10 dispersals with vertical line on branches are illustrated.

Mentions: The BEAST dating tree (Figure 2) was treated as a fully resolved phylogram for use as a basis for S-DIVA, and 791 post burnin trees derived from the BEAST analysis were used for ancestral area reconstruction in the program S-DIVA beta version 1.9. S-DIVA was performed with constraints of maximum areas 2 at each node, to infer possible ancestral areas and potential vicariance and dispersal events.


Molecular Biogeography of Tribe Thermopsideae (Leguminosae): A Madrean-Tethyan Disjunction Pattern with an African Origin of Core Genistoides.

Zhang ML, Huang JF, Sanderson SC, Yan P, Wu YH, Pan BR - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Chronogram of relaxed Bayesian BEAST on the basis of the ITS dataset. Estimated times (Ma) with 95% HPD credibility intervals at concerned nodes were 1 : 54.43 (53.04–58.85), 2 : 39.45 (16.98–54.54), 3 : 33.47, 4 : 26.51 (13.59–42.87), 5 : 21.91 (7.09–23.65), 6 : 11.89 (4.78–15.64), 7 : 28.81 (10.95–41.02), 8 : 20.32 (6.9–22.98), 9 : 5.48 (2.99–10.81), 10 : 6.5 (3.38–11.11), 11 : 4, 12 : 4.9 (1.6–6.89), 13 : 3.08 (0.26–3.2), and 14 : 0.97 (0.46–2.8). Bootstrap support values > 50% above branches and posterior probability values > 0.5 below branches are indicated. “W” behind species name means species with the sequence data come from GenBank produced by Wang et al. [14]. S-DIVA optimal reconstruction of hypothesized ancestral areas at nodes and 10 dispersals with vertical line on branches are illustrated.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4465657&req=5

fig2: Chronogram of relaxed Bayesian BEAST on the basis of the ITS dataset. Estimated times (Ma) with 95% HPD credibility intervals at concerned nodes were 1 : 54.43 (53.04–58.85), 2 : 39.45 (16.98–54.54), 3 : 33.47, 4 : 26.51 (13.59–42.87), 5 : 21.91 (7.09–23.65), 6 : 11.89 (4.78–15.64), 7 : 28.81 (10.95–41.02), 8 : 20.32 (6.9–22.98), 9 : 5.48 (2.99–10.81), 10 : 6.5 (3.38–11.11), 11 : 4, 12 : 4.9 (1.6–6.89), 13 : 3.08 (0.26–3.2), and 14 : 0.97 (0.46–2.8). Bootstrap support values > 50% above branches and posterior probability values > 0.5 below branches are indicated. “W” behind species name means species with the sequence data come from GenBank produced by Wang et al. [14]. S-DIVA optimal reconstruction of hypothesized ancestral areas at nodes and 10 dispersals with vertical line on branches are illustrated.
Mentions: The BEAST dating tree (Figure 2) was treated as a fully resolved phylogram for use as a basis for S-DIVA, and 791 post burnin trees derived from the BEAST analysis were used for ancestral area reconstruction in the program S-DIVA beta version 1.9. S-DIVA was performed with constraints of maximum areas 2 at each node, to infer possible ancestral areas and potential vicariance and dispersal events.

Bottom Line: The results indicate that the core genistoides most likely originated in Africa during the Eocene to Oligocene, ca. 55-30 Ma, and dispersed eastward to Central Asia at ca. 33.47 Ma.Divergences in East Asia, Central Asia, the Mediterranean, and so forth, within Eurasia, except for Ammopiptanthus, are shown to be dispersals from the QTP.The onset of adaptive radiation at the center of the tribe, with diversification of most species in Thermopsis and Piptanthus at ca. 4-0.85 Ma in Tibet and adjacent regions, seems to have resulted from intense northern QTP uplift during the latter Miocene to Pleistocene.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Biogeography and Bioresource in Arid Land, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011, China ; Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China.

ABSTRACT
Thermopsideae has 45 species and exhibits a series of interesting biogeographical distribution patterns, such as Madrean-Tethyan disjunction and East Asia-North America disjunction, with a center of endemism in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (QTP) and Central Asia. Phylogenetic analysis in this paper employed maximum likelihood using ITS, rps16, psbA-trnH, and trnL-F sequence data; biogeographical approaches included BEAST molecular dating and Bayesian dispersal and vicariance analysis (S-DIVA). The results indicate that the core genistoides most likely originated in Africa during the Eocene to Oligocene, ca. 55-30 Ma, and dispersed eastward to Central Asia at ca. 33.47 Ma. The origin of Thermopsideae is inferred as Central Asian and dated to ca. 28.81 Ma. Ammopiptanthus is revealed to be a relic. Birth of the ancestor of Thermopsideae coincided with shrinkage of the Paratethys Sea at ca. 30 Ma in the Oligocene. The Himalayan motion of QTP uplift of ca. 20 Ma most likely drove the diversification between Central Asia and North America. Divergences in East Asia, Central Asia, the Mediterranean, and so forth, within Eurasia, except for Ammopiptanthus, are shown to be dispersals from the QTP. The onset of adaptive radiation at the center of the tribe, with diversification of most species in Thermopsis and Piptanthus at ca. 4-0.85 Ma in Tibet and adjacent regions, seems to have resulted from intense northern QTP uplift during the latter Miocene to Pleistocene.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus