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Glucocorticoid Stress Responses of Reintroduced Tigers in Relation to Anthropogenic Disturbance in Sariska Tiger Reserve in India.

Bhattacharjee S, Kumar V, Chandrasekhar M, Malviya M, Ganswindt A, Ramesh K, Sankar K, Umapathy G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We found anthropogenic disturbance such as encounter rates of livestock and humans, distance to roads and efforts to kill domestic livestock associated with an elevation in fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) concentrations in the monitored tigers.It was possible to discern that tiger's fGCM levels were significantly positively related to the time spent in disturbed areas.Resulting management recommendations include relocation of villages from core areas and restriction of all anthropogenic activities in the entire STR.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wildlife Institute of India, Chandrabani, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.

ABSTRACT
Tiger (Panthera tigris), an endangered species, is under severe threat from poaching, habitat loss, prey depletion and habitat disturbance. Such factors have been reported causing local extermination of tiger populations including in one of the most important reserves in India, namely Sariska Tiger Reserve (STR) in northwestern India. Consequently, tigers were reintroduced in STR between 2008 and 2010, but inadequate breeding success was observed over the years, thus invoking an investigation to ascertain physiological correlates. In the present study, we report glucocorticoid stress responses of the reintroduced tigers in relation to anthropogenic disturbance in the STR from 2011 to 2013. We found anthropogenic disturbance such as encounter rates of livestock and humans, distance to roads and efforts to kill domestic livestock associated with an elevation in fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) concentrations in the monitored tigers. In this regard, female tigers seem more sensitive to such disturbance than males. It was possible to discern that tiger's fGCM levels were significantly positively related to the time spent in disturbed areas. Resulting management recommendations include relocation of villages from core areas and restriction of all anthropogenic activities in the entire STR.

No MeSH data available.


The study area, Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India.
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pone.0127626.g001: The study area, Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India.

Mentions: About 10000 people from 32 villages along with 19132 livestock[39], live inside the Sariska Tiger Reserve (STR), which seems a serious threat to the survival of tigers [21] (Fig 1). These people are traditionally pastoralist communities who totally depend on forests for their livelihood [21]. Sankar et al [40] reported that livestock moved on an average of 3.3 km around each village, thus leaving only 15% of park without livestock presence and anthropogenic activities. These livestock formed about 19% of overall prey of tigers in Sariska although only the unguarded livestock away from the villages were killed by tigers [21]. Further, two major state highways, the Alwar-Thanagazhi-Jaipur and the Sariska-Kalighati-Tehla, which are in total about 44 km long, traverse through the center of the National Park. The presence of a large number of people, livestock and busy road inside the park would certainly have an impact on the entire wildlife and the ecosystem. With this background, it was hypothesized that stress caused by these anthropogenic pressures in the habitat might have an influence on the reproductive potential of the introduced tigers in Sariska. Therefore, the present study was aimed to assess adrenocortical activity as a measure of stress in these reintroduced tigers with reference to anthropogenic variables which might give us some insight about the origin of stress and also help us in providing further management recommendations for policy implementation to ensure a sustainable future for the reintroduced tigers in STR.


Glucocorticoid Stress Responses of Reintroduced Tigers in Relation to Anthropogenic Disturbance in Sariska Tiger Reserve in India.

Bhattacharjee S, Kumar V, Chandrasekhar M, Malviya M, Ganswindt A, Ramesh K, Sankar K, Umapathy G - PLoS ONE (2015)

The study area, Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4465644&req=5

pone.0127626.g001: The study area, Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India.
Mentions: About 10000 people from 32 villages along with 19132 livestock[39], live inside the Sariska Tiger Reserve (STR), which seems a serious threat to the survival of tigers [21] (Fig 1). These people are traditionally pastoralist communities who totally depend on forests for their livelihood [21]. Sankar et al [40] reported that livestock moved on an average of 3.3 km around each village, thus leaving only 15% of park without livestock presence and anthropogenic activities. These livestock formed about 19% of overall prey of tigers in Sariska although only the unguarded livestock away from the villages were killed by tigers [21]. Further, two major state highways, the Alwar-Thanagazhi-Jaipur and the Sariska-Kalighati-Tehla, which are in total about 44 km long, traverse through the center of the National Park. The presence of a large number of people, livestock and busy road inside the park would certainly have an impact on the entire wildlife and the ecosystem. With this background, it was hypothesized that stress caused by these anthropogenic pressures in the habitat might have an influence on the reproductive potential of the introduced tigers in Sariska. Therefore, the present study was aimed to assess adrenocortical activity as a measure of stress in these reintroduced tigers with reference to anthropogenic variables which might give us some insight about the origin of stress and also help us in providing further management recommendations for policy implementation to ensure a sustainable future for the reintroduced tigers in STR.

Bottom Line: We found anthropogenic disturbance such as encounter rates of livestock and humans, distance to roads and efforts to kill domestic livestock associated with an elevation in fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) concentrations in the monitored tigers.It was possible to discern that tiger's fGCM levels were significantly positively related to the time spent in disturbed areas.Resulting management recommendations include relocation of villages from core areas and restriction of all anthropogenic activities in the entire STR.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wildlife Institute of India, Chandrabani, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.

ABSTRACT
Tiger (Panthera tigris), an endangered species, is under severe threat from poaching, habitat loss, prey depletion and habitat disturbance. Such factors have been reported causing local extermination of tiger populations including in one of the most important reserves in India, namely Sariska Tiger Reserve (STR) in northwestern India. Consequently, tigers were reintroduced in STR between 2008 and 2010, but inadequate breeding success was observed over the years, thus invoking an investigation to ascertain physiological correlates. In the present study, we report glucocorticoid stress responses of the reintroduced tigers in relation to anthropogenic disturbance in the STR from 2011 to 2013. We found anthropogenic disturbance such as encounter rates of livestock and humans, distance to roads and efforts to kill domestic livestock associated with an elevation in fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) concentrations in the monitored tigers. In this regard, female tigers seem more sensitive to such disturbance than males. It was possible to discern that tiger's fGCM levels were significantly positively related to the time spent in disturbed areas. Resulting management recommendations include relocation of villages from core areas and restriction of all anthropogenic activities in the entire STR.

No MeSH data available.