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Fungal endophytes of Vanilla planifolia across Réunion Island: isolation, distribution and biotransformation.

Khoyratty S, Dupont J, Lacoste S, Palama TL, Choi YH, Kim HK, Payet B, Grisoni M, Fouillaud M, Verpoorte R, Kodja H - BMC Plant Biol. (2015)

Bottom Line: Though Fusarium proliferatum was recovered more often (37.6% of the isolates), it is Pestalotiopsis microspora (3.0%) that increased the absolute amounts (quantified by (1)H NMR in μmol/g DW green pods) of vanillin (37.0 × 10(-3)), vanillyl alcohol (100.0 × 10(-3)), vanillic acid (9.2 × 10(-3)) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (87.9 × 10(-3)) by significant amounts.Endophytic variation occured between cultivation practices and the type of organ.Given the physical proximity of fungi inside pods, endophytic biotransformation may contribute to the complexity of vanilla flavors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Université de La Réunion, UMR PVBMT, 15 avenue René Cassin, CS 92003-97744, Saint Denis Cedex 9, La Réunion, France. shahnookhoyratty@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: The objective of the work was to characterize fungal endophytes from aerial parts of Vanilla planifolia. Also, to establish their biotransformation abilities of flavor-related metabolites. This was done in order to find a potential role of endophytes on vanilla flavors.

Results: Twenty three MOTUs were obtained, representing 6 fungal classes. Fungi from green pods were cultured on mature green pod based media for 30 days followed by (1)H NMR and HPLC-DAD analysis. All fungi from pods consumed metabolized vanilla flavor phenolics. Though Fusarium proliferatum was recovered more often (37.6% of the isolates), it is Pestalotiopsis microspora (3.0%) that increased the absolute amounts (quantified by (1)H NMR in μmol/g DW green pods) of vanillin (37.0 × 10(-3)), vanillyl alcohol (100.0 × 10(-3)), vanillic acid (9.2 × 10(-3)) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (87.9 × 10(-3)) by significant amounts.

Conclusions: All plants studied contained endophytic fungi and the isolation of the endophytes was conducted from plant organs at nine sites in Réunion Island including under shade house and undergrowth conditions. Endophytic variation occured between cultivation practices and the type of organ. Given the physical proximity of fungi inside pods, endophytic biotransformation may contribute to the complexity of vanilla flavors.

No MeSH data available.


Percentage of each MOTU in relation to the total number of fungi isolated. The following MOTUs are represented in the diagram: MOTU1 Fusarium proliferatum, MOTU2 Fusarium scirpi, MOTU3 Fusarium oxysporum, MOTU4 Acremonium implicatum, MOTU5 Purpureocillium lilacinum, MOTU6 Phomopsis phyllanthicola, MOTU7 Diaporthe phaseolorum, MOTU8 Nemania bipapillata, MOTU9 Xylaria sp., MOTU10 Pestalotiopsis microspora, MOTU11 Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, MOTU12 Colletotrichum sp2, MOTU13 Nigrospora sp1, MOTU14 Nigrospora sp 2, MOTU15 Delitschia chaetomioides, MOTU16 Botryosphaeria ribis, MOTU17 Guignardia mangiferae, MOTU18 Mycosphaerella marksii, MOTU19 Penicillium citrinum, MOTU20 Aspergillus fumigatus, MOTU21 Sarcosomataceous spp., MOTU22 Perenniporia nanlingensis and MOTU23 Cunninghamella blakesleana
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Fig2: Percentage of each MOTU in relation to the total number of fungi isolated. The following MOTUs are represented in the diagram: MOTU1 Fusarium proliferatum, MOTU2 Fusarium scirpi, MOTU3 Fusarium oxysporum, MOTU4 Acremonium implicatum, MOTU5 Purpureocillium lilacinum, MOTU6 Phomopsis phyllanthicola, MOTU7 Diaporthe phaseolorum, MOTU8 Nemania bipapillata, MOTU9 Xylaria sp., MOTU10 Pestalotiopsis microspora, MOTU11 Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, MOTU12 Colletotrichum sp2, MOTU13 Nigrospora sp1, MOTU14 Nigrospora sp 2, MOTU15 Delitschia chaetomioides, MOTU16 Botryosphaeria ribis, MOTU17 Guignardia mangiferae, MOTU18 Mycosphaerella marksii, MOTU19 Penicillium citrinum, MOTU20 Aspergillus fumigatus, MOTU21 Sarcosomataceous spp., MOTU22 Perenniporia nanlingensis and MOTU23 Cunninghamella blakesleana

Mentions: After identifying the isolated fungi (Additional file 1: Table S1), it was found that out of 450 sampled tissues, 220 yielded endophytes (Table 1) from which 434 isolates were recovered (Table 3). Hence, at least 48.9 % of sampled tissues were infected, given that some fungal endophytes may not be cultivable. This low percentage is due to young leaves (1 and 3 weeks old) that were free of endophyte or a low infection level might have hampered isolation of the fungi. Twenty three different MOTUs were isolated from the collected samples, representing six classes (Sordariomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Pezizomycetes, Agaricomycetes, Zygomycetes; Table 3). Fusarium proliferatum (MOTU1) was, by far, the most abundant fungus accounting for 37.6 % of the isolates (Table 3) and the most common fungus, occurring at all the nine sites sampled (Table 2 and Fig. 2).Table 1


Fungal endophytes of Vanilla planifolia across Réunion Island: isolation, distribution and biotransformation.

Khoyratty S, Dupont J, Lacoste S, Palama TL, Choi YH, Kim HK, Payet B, Grisoni M, Fouillaud M, Verpoorte R, Kodja H - BMC Plant Biol. (2015)

Percentage of each MOTU in relation to the total number of fungi isolated. The following MOTUs are represented in the diagram: MOTU1 Fusarium proliferatum, MOTU2 Fusarium scirpi, MOTU3 Fusarium oxysporum, MOTU4 Acremonium implicatum, MOTU5 Purpureocillium lilacinum, MOTU6 Phomopsis phyllanthicola, MOTU7 Diaporthe phaseolorum, MOTU8 Nemania bipapillata, MOTU9 Xylaria sp., MOTU10 Pestalotiopsis microspora, MOTU11 Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, MOTU12 Colletotrichum sp2, MOTU13 Nigrospora sp1, MOTU14 Nigrospora sp 2, MOTU15 Delitschia chaetomioides, MOTU16 Botryosphaeria ribis, MOTU17 Guignardia mangiferae, MOTU18 Mycosphaerella marksii, MOTU19 Penicillium citrinum, MOTU20 Aspergillus fumigatus, MOTU21 Sarcosomataceous spp., MOTU22 Perenniporia nanlingensis and MOTU23 Cunninghamella blakesleana
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4465486&req=5

Fig2: Percentage of each MOTU in relation to the total number of fungi isolated. The following MOTUs are represented in the diagram: MOTU1 Fusarium proliferatum, MOTU2 Fusarium scirpi, MOTU3 Fusarium oxysporum, MOTU4 Acremonium implicatum, MOTU5 Purpureocillium lilacinum, MOTU6 Phomopsis phyllanthicola, MOTU7 Diaporthe phaseolorum, MOTU8 Nemania bipapillata, MOTU9 Xylaria sp., MOTU10 Pestalotiopsis microspora, MOTU11 Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, MOTU12 Colletotrichum sp2, MOTU13 Nigrospora sp1, MOTU14 Nigrospora sp 2, MOTU15 Delitschia chaetomioides, MOTU16 Botryosphaeria ribis, MOTU17 Guignardia mangiferae, MOTU18 Mycosphaerella marksii, MOTU19 Penicillium citrinum, MOTU20 Aspergillus fumigatus, MOTU21 Sarcosomataceous spp., MOTU22 Perenniporia nanlingensis and MOTU23 Cunninghamella blakesleana
Mentions: After identifying the isolated fungi (Additional file 1: Table S1), it was found that out of 450 sampled tissues, 220 yielded endophytes (Table 1) from which 434 isolates were recovered (Table 3). Hence, at least 48.9 % of sampled tissues were infected, given that some fungal endophytes may not be cultivable. This low percentage is due to young leaves (1 and 3 weeks old) that were free of endophyte or a low infection level might have hampered isolation of the fungi. Twenty three different MOTUs were isolated from the collected samples, representing six classes (Sordariomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Pezizomycetes, Agaricomycetes, Zygomycetes; Table 3). Fusarium proliferatum (MOTU1) was, by far, the most abundant fungus accounting for 37.6 % of the isolates (Table 3) and the most common fungus, occurring at all the nine sites sampled (Table 2 and Fig. 2).Table 1

Bottom Line: Though Fusarium proliferatum was recovered more often (37.6% of the isolates), it is Pestalotiopsis microspora (3.0%) that increased the absolute amounts (quantified by (1)H NMR in μmol/g DW green pods) of vanillin (37.0 × 10(-3)), vanillyl alcohol (100.0 × 10(-3)), vanillic acid (9.2 × 10(-3)) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (87.9 × 10(-3)) by significant amounts.Endophytic variation occured between cultivation practices and the type of organ.Given the physical proximity of fungi inside pods, endophytic biotransformation may contribute to the complexity of vanilla flavors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Université de La Réunion, UMR PVBMT, 15 avenue René Cassin, CS 92003-97744, Saint Denis Cedex 9, La Réunion, France. shahnookhoyratty@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: The objective of the work was to characterize fungal endophytes from aerial parts of Vanilla planifolia. Also, to establish their biotransformation abilities of flavor-related metabolites. This was done in order to find a potential role of endophytes on vanilla flavors.

Results: Twenty three MOTUs were obtained, representing 6 fungal classes. Fungi from green pods were cultured on mature green pod based media for 30 days followed by (1)H NMR and HPLC-DAD analysis. All fungi from pods consumed metabolized vanilla flavor phenolics. Though Fusarium proliferatum was recovered more often (37.6% of the isolates), it is Pestalotiopsis microspora (3.0%) that increased the absolute amounts (quantified by (1)H NMR in μmol/g DW green pods) of vanillin (37.0 × 10(-3)), vanillyl alcohol (100.0 × 10(-3)), vanillic acid (9.2 × 10(-3)) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (87.9 × 10(-3)) by significant amounts.

Conclusions: All plants studied contained endophytic fungi and the isolation of the endophytes was conducted from plant organs at nine sites in Réunion Island including under shade house and undergrowth conditions. Endophytic variation occured between cultivation practices and the type of organ. Given the physical proximity of fungi inside pods, endophytic biotransformation may contribute to the complexity of vanilla flavors.

No MeSH data available.