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Six years of experience in entomological surveillance of indoor residual spraying against malaria transmission in Benin: lessons learned, challenges and outlooks.

Akogbéto MC, Aïkpon RY, Azondékon R, Padonou GG, Ossè RA, Agossa FR, Beach R, Sèzonlin M - Malar. J. (2015)

Bottom Line: In addition, a significant reduction of the EIR in areas under IRS were observed.This was because of the low and short residual effect of the insecticides recommended for IRS and the management strategy for vector resistance to insecticides.As an anticipatory measure against vector resistance, this paper proposes various methods, such as periodic IRS based on a combination of two or three insecticides of different classes used in rotation every two or three years.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre de Recherche Entomologique de Cotonou (CREC), 06 BP 2604, Cotonou, Bénin. akogbetom@yahoo.fr.

ABSTRACT

Background: From 2008 to 2013, a prevention intervention against malaria based on indoor residual spraying (IRS) was implemented in Benin. From 2008 to 2012, Ficam M(®), a bendiocarb-containing product was used for house spraying, in association with pirimiphos methyl EC (Actellic EC) in 2013. This operation aimed to strengthen the effectiveness of treated nets so as to expedite the achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): the reduction of morbidity and mortality due to malaria by 75 % from 2000 to 2015.

Methods: Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) was implemented in order to evaluate the impact of IRS intervention on malaria transmission. Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations were sampled by human landing catch. In addition, window exit traps and pyrethrum spray catches were performed to assess exophagic behaviour of Anopheles vectors the main malaria vector in the treated areas. The residual activity of insecticide in the treated walls was also assessed using WHO bioassay test.

Results: The purpose of this project was to draw attention to new challenges and future prospects for the success of IRS in Benin. The main strength of the intervention was a large-scale operation in which more than 80 % of the houses were treated due to the strong adhesion of population. In addition, a significant reduction of the EIR in areas under IRS were observed. However, there were many challenges including the high cost of IRS implementation and the identification of suitable areas to implement IRS. This was because of the low and short residual effect of the insecticides recommended for IRS and the management strategy for vector resistance to insecticides. This indicated that challenges are accompanied by suggested solutions. For the cost of IRS to be accessible to states, then local organizations need to be created in partnership with the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) in order to ensure relevant planning and implementation of IRS.

Conclusion: As an anticipatory measure against vector resistance, this paper proposes various methods, such as periodic IRS based on a combination of two or three insecticides of different classes used in rotation every two or three years.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Monthly variation of Entomological Inoculation Rate after IRS implementation in 4 districts and in the control area in 2010, department of Ouémé, Benin
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Fig2: Monthly variation of Entomological Inoculation Rate after IRS implementation in 4 districts and in the control area in 2010, department of Ouémé, Benin

Mentions: In 2010, two IRS rounds were completed. The two rounds were implemented in April (beginning of the long rainy season) and then in August (prior to the beginning of the short rainy season) (Fig. 2). Figure 2 shows that in the control area (Akron), there were two malaria transmission peaks, one between June (EIR = 5.63 infected bites/man/night) and July (EIR = 5.64 bites/man/night), the other in October (EIR = 1.88). A projection of this data throughout 2010 shows an extremely high EIR in the control area (821.25 infected bites/man/year (2.25 × 365). In addition, transmission remained barely noticeable throughout the year in the four districts under treatment (Fig. 2 and Table 2). Annual EIRs in these areas were significantly lower than those in the control area: 821.25 in the control against 10.95 (0.03 × 365) (Table 2) in Adjohoun (a 98.7 % reduction), 7.3 in Dangbo (99 % reduction) and 55.1 in Sèmè (93 % reduction). The advantage of two IRS rounds a year is to keep steady pressure control on the density of Anopheles. However, the NMCP could not continue the IRS campaign at this rate, considering the cost and burden of the strategy. It was therefore decided in 2011 to move the IRS to Atacora, a department characterized by a single rainy season each year.Fig. 2


Six years of experience in entomological surveillance of indoor residual spraying against malaria transmission in Benin: lessons learned, challenges and outlooks.

Akogbéto MC, Aïkpon RY, Azondékon R, Padonou GG, Ossè RA, Agossa FR, Beach R, Sèzonlin M - Malar. J. (2015)

Monthly variation of Entomological Inoculation Rate after IRS implementation in 4 districts and in the control area in 2010, department of Ouémé, Benin
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4465467&req=5

Fig2: Monthly variation of Entomological Inoculation Rate after IRS implementation in 4 districts and in the control area in 2010, department of Ouémé, Benin
Mentions: In 2010, two IRS rounds were completed. The two rounds were implemented in April (beginning of the long rainy season) and then in August (prior to the beginning of the short rainy season) (Fig. 2). Figure 2 shows that in the control area (Akron), there were two malaria transmission peaks, one between June (EIR = 5.63 infected bites/man/night) and July (EIR = 5.64 bites/man/night), the other in October (EIR = 1.88). A projection of this data throughout 2010 shows an extremely high EIR in the control area (821.25 infected bites/man/year (2.25 × 365). In addition, transmission remained barely noticeable throughout the year in the four districts under treatment (Fig. 2 and Table 2). Annual EIRs in these areas were significantly lower than those in the control area: 821.25 in the control against 10.95 (0.03 × 365) (Table 2) in Adjohoun (a 98.7 % reduction), 7.3 in Dangbo (99 % reduction) and 55.1 in Sèmè (93 % reduction). The advantage of two IRS rounds a year is to keep steady pressure control on the density of Anopheles. However, the NMCP could not continue the IRS campaign at this rate, considering the cost and burden of the strategy. It was therefore decided in 2011 to move the IRS to Atacora, a department characterized by a single rainy season each year.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: In addition, a significant reduction of the EIR in areas under IRS were observed.This was because of the low and short residual effect of the insecticides recommended for IRS and the management strategy for vector resistance to insecticides.As an anticipatory measure against vector resistance, this paper proposes various methods, such as periodic IRS based on a combination of two or three insecticides of different classes used in rotation every two or three years.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre de Recherche Entomologique de Cotonou (CREC), 06 BP 2604, Cotonou, Bénin. akogbetom@yahoo.fr.

ABSTRACT

Background: From 2008 to 2013, a prevention intervention against malaria based on indoor residual spraying (IRS) was implemented in Benin. From 2008 to 2012, Ficam M(®), a bendiocarb-containing product was used for house spraying, in association with pirimiphos methyl EC (Actellic EC) in 2013. This operation aimed to strengthen the effectiveness of treated nets so as to expedite the achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): the reduction of morbidity and mortality due to malaria by 75 % from 2000 to 2015.

Methods: Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) was implemented in order to evaluate the impact of IRS intervention on malaria transmission. Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations were sampled by human landing catch. In addition, window exit traps and pyrethrum spray catches were performed to assess exophagic behaviour of Anopheles vectors the main malaria vector in the treated areas. The residual activity of insecticide in the treated walls was also assessed using WHO bioassay test.

Results: The purpose of this project was to draw attention to new challenges and future prospects for the success of IRS in Benin. The main strength of the intervention was a large-scale operation in which more than 80 % of the houses were treated due to the strong adhesion of population. In addition, a significant reduction of the EIR in areas under IRS were observed. However, there were many challenges including the high cost of IRS implementation and the identification of suitable areas to implement IRS. This was because of the low and short residual effect of the insecticides recommended for IRS and the management strategy for vector resistance to insecticides. This indicated that challenges are accompanied by suggested solutions. For the cost of IRS to be accessible to states, then local organizations need to be created in partnership with the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) in order to ensure relevant planning and implementation of IRS.

Conclusion: As an anticipatory measure against vector resistance, this paper proposes various methods, such as periodic IRS based on a combination of two or three insecticides of different classes used in rotation every two or three years.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus