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Natural and Anthropogenic Hybridization in Two Species of Eastern Brazilian Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and C. penicillata).

Malukiewicz J, Boere V, Fuzessy LF, Grativol AD, de Oliveira E Silva I, Pereira LC, Ruiz-Miranda CR, Valença YM, Stone AC - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Callithrix marmosets give us a unique glimpse of genetic hybridization effects under distinct natural and human-induced contexts.We also show evidence that São Francisco River islands are gateways for bidirectional gene flow across the species border.Our data show that while hybridization can occur naturally, the presence of physical, even if leaky, barriers to hybridization is important for maintaining species genetic integrity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa MG, Brazil; School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, 85287, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Animal hybridization is well documented, but evolutionary outcomes and conservation priorities often differ for natural and anthropogenic hybrids. Among primates, an order with many endangered species, the two contexts can be hard to disentangle from one another, which carries important conservation implications. Callithrix marmosets give us a unique glimpse of genetic hybridization effects under distinct natural and human-induced contexts. Here, we use a 44 autosomal microsatellite marker panel to examine genome-wide admixture levels and introgression at a natural C. jacchus and C. penicillata species border along the São Francisco River in NE Brazil and in an area of Rio de Janeiro state where humans introduced these species exotically. Additionally, we describe for the first time autosomal genetic diversity in wild C. penicillata and expand previous C. jacchus genetic data. We characterize admixture within the natural zone as bimodal where hybrid ancestry is biased toward one parental species or the other. We also show evidence that São Francisco River islands are gateways for bidirectional gene flow across the species border. In the anthropogenic zone, marmosets essentially form a hybrid swarm with intermediate levels of admixture, likely from the absence of strong physical barriers to interspecific breeding. Our data show that while hybridization can occur naturally, the presence of physical, even if leaky, barriers to hybridization is important for maintaining species genetic integrity. Thus, we suggest further study of hybridization under different contexts to set well informed conservation guidelines for hybrid populations that often fit somewhere between "natural" and "man-made."

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Detail of Rio de Janeiro State anthropogenic hybrid zone.We sampled within the zone along an approximately 30 km transect paralleling highway BR-101. Four sites were found to the south of the highway: (1) Boa Esperança; (2) House U; (3) Rio Vermelho I; and (4) Rio Vermelho II. Four sites were found to the north of the highway: (5) Fazenda dos Tamarins; (6) Pesque Pague; (7) Ponto do Camarão; and (8) Fazenda Afetiva.
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pone.0127268.g003: Detail of Rio de Janeiro State anthropogenic hybrid zone.We sampled within the zone along an approximately 30 km transect paralleling highway BR-101. Four sites were found to the south of the highway: (1) Boa Esperança; (2) House U; (3) Rio Vermelho I; and (4) Rio Vermelho II. Four sites were found to the north of the highway: (5) Fazenda dos Tamarins; (6) Pesque Pague; (7) Ponto do Camarão; and (8) Fazenda Afetiva.

Mentions: The municipalities of Silva Jardim and Rio Bonito make up an anthropogenic hybrid zone in Rio de Janeiro state, abbreviated here as the “RJ anthropogenic zone.” Capture locations within the RJ anthropogenic zone are detailed in Fig 3. Marmosets in the RJ anthropogenic zone are descendants of introduced C. jacchus and C. penicillata present in the area since at least the mid-1980s [21]. The RJ anthropogenic zone is divided into northern and southern portions by a heavily used highway, BR-101.


Natural and Anthropogenic Hybridization in Two Species of Eastern Brazilian Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and C. penicillata).

Malukiewicz J, Boere V, Fuzessy LF, Grativol AD, de Oliveira E Silva I, Pereira LC, Ruiz-Miranda CR, Valença YM, Stone AC - PLoS ONE (2015)

Detail of Rio de Janeiro State anthropogenic hybrid zone.We sampled within the zone along an approximately 30 km transect paralleling highway BR-101. Four sites were found to the south of the highway: (1) Boa Esperança; (2) House U; (3) Rio Vermelho I; and (4) Rio Vermelho II. Four sites were found to the north of the highway: (5) Fazenda dos Tamarins; (6) Pesque Pague; (7) Ponto do Camarão; and (8) Fazenda Afetiva.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4464756&req=5

pone.0127268.g003: Detail of Rio de Janeiro State anthropogenic hybrid zone.We sampled within the zone along an approximately 30 km transect paralleling highway BR-101. Four sites were found to the south of the highway: (1) Boa Esperança; (2) House U; (3) Rio Vermelho I; and (4) Rio Vermelho II. Four sites were found to the north of the highway: (5) Fazenda dos Tamarins; (6) Pesque Pague; (7) Ponto do Camarão; and (8) Fazenda Afetiva.
Mentions: The municipalities of Silva Jardim and Rio Bonito make up an anthropogenic hybrid zone in Rio de Janeiro state, abbreviated here as the “RJ anthropogenic zone.” Capture locations within the RJ anthropogenic zone are detailed in Fig 3. Marmosets in the RJ anthropogenic zone are descendants of introduced C. jacchus and C. penicillata present in the area since at least the mid-1980s [21]. The RJ anthropogenic zone is divided into northern and southern portions by a heavily used highway, BR-101.

Bottom Line: Callithrix marmosets give us a unique glimpse of genetic hybridization effects under distinct natural and human-induced contexts.We also show evidence that São Francisco River islands are gateways for bidirectional gene flow across the species border.Our data show that while hybridization can occur naturally, the presence of physical, even if leaky, barriers to hybridization is important for maintaining species genetic integrity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa MG, Brazil; School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, 85287, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Animal hybridization is well documented, but evolutionary outcomes and conservation priorities often differ for natural and anthropogenic hybrids. Among primates, an order with many endangered species, the two contexts can be hard to disentangle from one another, which carries important conservation implications. Callithrix marmosets give us a unique glimpse of genetic hybridization effects under distinct natural and human-induced contexts. Here, we use a 44 autosomal microsatellite marker panel to examine genome-wide admixture levels and introgression at a natural C. jacchus and C. penicillata species border along the São Francisco River in NE Brazil and in an area of Rio de Janeiro state where humans introduced these species exotically. Additionally, we describe for the first time autosomal genetic diversity in wild C. penicillata and expand previous C. jacchus genetic data. We characterize admixture within the natural zone as bimodal where hybrid ancestry is biased toward one parental species or the other. We also show evidence that São Francisco River islands are gateways for bidirectional gene flow across the species border. In the anthropogenic zone, marmosets essentially form a hybrid swarm with intermediate levels of admixture, likely from the absence of strong physical barriers to interspecific breeding. Our data show that while hybridization can occur naturally, the presence of physical, even if leaky, barriers to hybridization is important for maintaining species genetic integrity. Thus, we suggest further study of hybridization under different contexts to set well informed conservation guidelines for hybrid populations that often fit somewhere between "natural" and "man-made."

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus