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Natural and Anthropogenic Hybridization in Two Species of Eastern Brazilian Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and C. penicillata).

Malukiewicz J, Boere V, Fuzessy LF, Grativol AD, de Oliveira E Silva I, Pereira LC, Ruiz-Miranda CR, Valença YM, Stone AC - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Callithrix marmosets give us a unique glimpse of genetic hybridization effects under distinct natural and human-induced contexts.We also show evidence that São Francisco River islands are gateways for bidirectional gene flow across the species border.Our data show that while hybridization can occur naturally, the presence of physical, even if leaky, barriers to hybridization is important for maintaining species genetic integrity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa MG, Brazil; School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, 85287, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Animal hybridization is well documented, but evolutionary outcomes and conservation priorities often differ for natural and anthropogenic hybrids. Among primates, an order with many endangered species, the two contexts can be hard to disentangle from one another, which carries important conservation implications. Callithrix marmosets give us a unique glimpse of genetic hybridization effects under distinct natural and human-induced contexts. Here, we use a 44 autosomal microsatellite marker panel to examine genome-wide admixture levels and introgression at a natural C. jacchus and C. penicillata species border along the São Francisco River in NE Brazil and in an area of Rio de Janeiro state where humans introduced these species exotically. Additionally, we describe for the first time autosomal genetic diversity in wild C. penicillata and expand previous C. jacchus genetic data. We characterize admixture within the natural zone as bimodal where hybrid ancestry is biased toward one parental species or the other. We also show evidence that São Francisco River islands are gateways for bidirectional gene flow across the species border. In the anthropogenic zone, marmosets essentially form a hybrid swarm with intermediate levels of admixture, likely from the absence of strong physical barriers to interspecific breeding. Our data show that while hybridization can occur naturally, the presence of physical, even if leaky, barriers to hybridization is important for maintaining species genetic integrity. Thus, we suggest further study of hybridization under different contexts to set well informed conservation guidelines for hybrid populations that often fit somewhere between "natural" and "man-made."

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Brazilian Callithrix jacchus and C. penicillata ranges and sampling locations of parental and hybrid populations.Orange and light blue areas represent C. jacchus and C. penicillata ranges, respectively, based on 2014 IUCN Red List Spatial Data (http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/spatial-data). Thatched grey suggests region of C. penicillata presence based on Rylands et al. (1993, 2009) and our observations from this study. Degrees of longitude and latitude are, respectively, represented by the x- and the y-axes.
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pone.0127268.g001: Brazilian Callithrix jacchus and C. penicillata ranges and sampling locations of parental and hybrid populations.Orange and light blue areas represent C. jacchus and C. penicillata ranges, respectively, based on 2014 IUCN Red List Spatial Data (http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/spatial-data). Thatched grey suggests region of C. penicillata presence based on Rylands et al. (1993, 2009) and our observations from this study. Degrees of longitude and latitude are, respectively, represented by the x- and the y-axes.

Mentions: Between 2010 and 2011, biological samples were obtained from 80 C. jacchus and 44 C. penicillata, in both wild and captive (outbred) populations of each species. We also sampled 89 animals within two putative C. jacchus x C. penicillata hybrid zones. Phenotypic differences between the parental species and their hybrids are described in Malukiewicz et al. [23]. Locations of wild capture sites for pure and hybrid marmosets are shown in Fig 1. Sampling information is listed in Table 1 and latitude/longitude coordinates of the collection site for each individual are given in S1 Table. Additional C. jacchus samples were collected in 2005 and graciously donated by Dr. Maria Adélia Borstelmann de Oliveira (Table 1). This work included the collection of cheek swabs and skin samples from wild marmosets and cheek swabs, blood, and skin samples from captive marmosets. The Arizona State University Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Animals approved the capture and sampling of both wild Brazilian and US captive marmoset populations (ASU IACUC, protocol #11-1150R). Permission for capture and tissue collection from wild marmosets was also obtained from the Brazilian National Council on the Development of Science and Technology (CNPq) and the Brazilian Ministry for the Environment and Natural Resources (IBAMA, protocol #28075–2). All possible steps were taken to minimize animal suffering and maximize their safety. Collection from captive animals was done opportunistically during routine procedures, following facility guidelines. Wild animals were captured with Tomahawk style traps under protocols developed by Drs. Boere and Ruiz-Miranda. Animals were anesthesized with ketamine. Detailed information about collection permits sample collection, storage, sampling sites/facilities, and DNA extraction from biological samples has been described in Malukiewicz et al. [23].


Natural and Anthropogenic Hybridization in Two Species of Eastern Brazilian Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and C. penicillata).

Malukiewicz J, Boere V, Fuzessy LF, Grativol AD, de Oliveira E Silva I, Pereira LC, Ruiz-Miranda CR, Valença YM, Stone AC - PLoS ONE (2015)

Brazilian Callithrix jacchus and C. penicillata ranges and sampling locations of parental and hybrid populations.Orange and light blue areas represent C. jacchus and C. penicillata ranges, respectively, based on 2014 IUCN Red List Spatial Data (http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/spatial-data). Thatched grey suggests region of C. penicillata presence based on Rylands et al. (1993, 2009) and our observations from this study. Degrees of longitude and latitude are, respectively, represented by the x- and the y-axes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4464756&req=5

pone.0127268.g001: Brazilian Callithrix jacchus and C. penicillata ranges and sampling locations of parental and hybrid populations.Orange and light blue areas represent C. jacchus and C. penicillata ranges, respectively, based on 2014 IUCN Red List Spatial Data (http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/spatial-data). Thatched grey suggests region of C. penicillata presence based on Rylands et al. (1993, 2009) and our observations from this study. Degrees of longitude and latitude are, respectively, represented by the x- and the y-axes.
Mentions: Between 2010 and 2011, biological samples were obtained from 80 C. jacchus and 44 C. penicillata, in both wild and captive (outbred) populations of each species. We also sampled 89 animals within two putative C. jacchus x C. penicillata hybrid zones. Phenotypic differences between the parental species and their hybrids are described in Malukiewicz et al. [23]. Locations of wild capture sites for pure and hybrid marmosets are shown in Fig 1. Sampling information is listed in Table 1 and latitude/longitude coordinates of the collection site for each individual are given in S1 Table. Additional C. jacchus samples were collected in 2005 and graciously donated by Dr. Maria Adélia Borstelmann de Oliveira (Table 1). This work included the collection of cheek swabs and skin samples from wild marmosets and cheek swabs, blood, and skin samples from captive marmosets. The Arizona State University Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Animals approved the capture and sampling of both wild Brazilian and US captive marmoset populations (ASU IACUC, protocol #11-1150R). Permission for capture and tissue collection from wild marmosets was also obtained from the Brazilian National Council on the Development of Science and Technology (CNPq) and the Brazilian Ministry for the Environment and Natural Resources (IBAMA, protocol #28075–2). All possible steps were taken to minimize animal suffering and maximize their safety. Collection from captive animals was done opportunistically during routine procedures, following facility guidelines. Wild animals were captured with Tomahawk style traps under protocols developed by Drs. Boere and Ruiz-Miranda. Animals were anesthesized with ketamine. Detailed information about collection permits sample collection, storage, sampling sites/facilities, and DNA extraction from biological samples has been described in Malukiewicz et al. [23].

Bottom Line: Callithrix marmosets give us a unique glimpse of genetic hybridization effects under distinct natural and human-induced contexts.We also show evidence that São Francisco River islands are gateways for bidirectional gene flow across the species border.Our data show that while hybridization can occur naturally, the presence of physical, even if leaky, barriers to hybridization is important for maintaining species genetic integrity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa MG, Brazil; School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, 85287, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Animal hybridization is well documented, but evolutionary outcomes and conservation priorities often differ for natural and anthropogenic hybrids. Among primates, an order with many endangered species, the two contexts can be hard to disentangle from one another, which carries important conservation implications. Callithrix marmosets give us a unique glimpse of genetic hybridization effects under distinct natural and human-induced contexts. Here, we use a 44 autosomal microsatellite marker panel to examine genome-wide admixture levels and introgression at a natural C. jacchus and C. penicillata species border along the São Francisco River in NE Brazil and in an area of Rio de Janeiro state where humans introduced these species exotically. Additionally, we describe for the first time autosomal genetic diversity in wild C. penicillata and expand previous C. jacchus genetic data. We characterize admixture within the natural zone as bimodal where hybrid ancestry is biased toward one parental species or the other. We also show evidence that São Francisco River islands are gateways for bidirectional gene flow across the species border. In the anthropogenic zone, marmosets essentially form a hybrid swarm with intermediate levels of admixture, likely from the absence of strong physical barriers to interspecific breeding. Our data show that while hybridization can occur naturally, the presence of physical, even if leaky, barriers to hybridization is important for maintaining species genetic integrity. Thus, we suggest further study of hybridization under different contexts to set well informed conservation guidelines for hybrid populations that often fit somewhere between "natural" and "man-made."

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus