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Background fish feminization effects in European remote sites.

Jarque S, Quirós L, Grimalt JO, Gallego E, Catalan J, Lackner R, Piña B - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: We analyzed the expression levels of estrogen-regulated genes in male fish from these mountain lakes in Europe.This effect was correlated with the concentrations of some organochlorine compounds in fish and was consistent with the persistent occurrence of these tropospheric pollutants in the most remote planet regions.These results should be of general concern given the increasing endocrine disruption effects in human populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDÆA-CSIC). Jordi Girona, 18. 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Human activity has spread trace amounts of chemically stable endocrine-disrupting pollutants throughout the biosphere. These compounds have generated a background level of estrogenic activity that needs to be assessed. Fish are adequate sentinels for feminization effects as male specimens are more sensitive than humans to exogenous estrogenic compounds. High mountain lakes, the most distant environments of continental areas, only receive semi-volatile compounds from atmospheric deposition. We analyzed the expression levels of estrogen-regulated genes in male fish from these mountain lakes in Europe. Incipient feminization involving expression of estrogen receptor and zona radiata genes revealed a widespread diffuse estrogenic impact. This effect was correlated with the concentrations of some organochlorine compounds in fish and was consistent with the persistent occurrence of these tropospheric pollutants in the most remote planet regions. These results should be of general concern given the increasing endocrine disruption effects in human populations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Analysis of hepatic mRNA levels of estrogen-responsive genes in European high mountain lakes.A) Fold induction in mRNA levels for Vtg, Zrp1 and ERα in estradiol-treated juvenile trouts. Data represents average fold induction and standard deviations. B) Correlation of Vgt (left) and Zrp1 (right) mRNA levels in S. trutta females from Pyrenees (pale blue) and Tatras (dark blue) with reproductive stage (1- undifferentiated, 7- mature oocytes/spawning). C) Double log correlation between ERα and Zrp1 mRNA levels in males from Pyrenees (pale blue) and Tatras (dark blue). The corresponding linear regression and the correlation coefficient are shown.
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f1: Analysis of hepatic mRNA levels of estrogen-responsive genes in European high mountain lakes.A) Fold induction in mRNA levels for Vtg, Zrp1 and ERα in estradiol-treated juvenile trouts. Data represents average fold induction and standard deviations. B) Correlation of Vgt (left) and Zrp1 (right) mRNA levels in S. trutta females from Pyrenees (pale blue) and Tatras (dark blue) with reproductive stage (1- undifferentiated, 7- mature oocytes/spawning). C) Double log correlation between ERα and Zrp1 mRNA levels in males from Pyrenees (pale blue) and Tatras (dark blue). The corresponding linear regression and the correlation coefficient are shown.

Mentions: Total RNA isolated from different liver Salmo trutta (39 males and 61 females) collected in lakes from two mutually distant European mountain ranges, the Tatras and the Pyrenees16 (Supplementary Table S1) were retrotranscribed and used as template in a standard PCR using appropriate oligonucleotide pairs to detect Vtg, Zrp and ERα (Estrogen Receptor α) mRNA in liver. The reaction produced DNA fragments (amplicons) of the expected size for the three genes (not shown) and whose sequences were identical or very similar to the genes used for the primer design: 100% identity to the published S. trutta VtgA for the Vtg amplicon, 97% identity to Salvelinus alpinus zona pellucida protein beta for the Zrp1 amplicon, and 100% identity to Salmo salar ERα for the ERa amplicon. In a preliminary validation experiment, mRNA levels of these three genes were compared to the reference gene ß-Actin mRNA levels17 in control and estradiol-treated juvenile brown trout by qRT-PCR, using the same set of primers. As shown in Fig. 1A, the treatment increased hepatic mRNA levels for the three genes, corresponding the strongest induction to the Vtg gene (more than 100 fold) and the lowest one to ERa (less than 10-fold). These results indicate that the three genes can be used to monitor the exposure of S. trutta to estrogens.


Background fish feminization effects in European remote sites.

Jarque S, Quirós L, Grimalt JO, Gallego E, Catalan J, Lackner R, Piña B - Sci Rep (2015)

Analysis of hepatic mRNA levels of estrogen-responsive genes in European high mountain lakes.A) Fold induction in mRNA levels for Vtg, Zrp1 and ERα in estradiol-treated juvenile trouts. Data represents average fold induction and standard deviations. B) Correlation of Vgt (left) and Zrp1 (right) mRNA levels in S. trutta females from Pyrenees (pale blue) and Tatras (dark blue) with reproductive stage (1- undifferentiated, 7- mature oocytes/spawning). C) Double log correlation between ERα and Zrp1 mRNA levels in males from Pyrenees (pale blue) and Tatras (dark blue). The corresponding linear regression and the correlation coefficient are shown.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4462152&req=5

f1: Analysis of hepatic mRNA levels of estrogen-responsive genes in European high mountain lakes.A) Fold induction in mRNA levels for Vtg, Zrp1 and ERα in estradiol-treated juvenile trouts. Data represents average fold induction and standard deviations. B) Correlation of Vgt (left) and Zrp1 (right) mRNA levels in S. trutta females from Pyrenees (pale blue) and Tatras (dark blue) with reproductive stage (1- undifferentiated, 7- mature oocytes/spawning). C) Double log correlation between ERα and Zrp1 mRNA levels in males from Pyrenees (pale blue) and Tatras (dark blue). The corresponding linear regression and the correlation coefficient are shown.
Mentions: Total RNA isolated from different liver Salmo trutta (39 males and 61 females) collected in lakes from two mutually distant European mountain ranges, the Tatras and the Pyrenees16 (Supplementary Table S1) were retrotranscribed and used as template in a standard PCR using appropriate oligonucleotide pairs to detect Vtg, Zrp and ERα (Estrogen Receptor α) mRNA in liver. The reaction produced DNA fragments (amplicons) of the expected size for the three genes (not shown) and whose sequences were identical or very similar to the genes used for the primer design: 100% identity to the published S. trutta VtgA for the Vtg amplicon, 97% identity to Salvelinus alpinus zona pellucida protein beta for the Zrp1 amplicon, and 100% identity to Salmo salar ERα for the ERa amplicon. In a preliminary validation experiment, mRNA levels of these three genes were compared to the reference gene ß-Actin mRNA levels17 in control and estradiol-treated juvenile brown trout by qRT-PCR, using the same set of primers. As shown in Fig. 1A, the treatment increased hepatic mRNA levels for the three genes, corresponding the strongest induction to the Vtg gene (more than 100 fold) and the lowest one to ERa (less than 10-fold). These results indicate that the three genes can be used to monitor the exposure of S. trutta to estrogens.

Bottom Line: We analyzed the expression levels of estrogen-regulated genes in male fish from these mountain lakes in Europe.This effect was correlated with the concentrations of some organochlorine compounds in fish and was consistent with the persistent occurrence of these tropospheric pollutants in the most remote planet regions.These results should be of general concern given the increasing endocrine disruption effects in human populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDÆA-CSIC). Jordi Girona, 18. 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Human activity has spread trace amounts of chemically stable endocrine-disrupting pollutants throughout the biosphere. These compounds have generated a background level of estrogenic activity that needs to be assessed. Fish are adequate sentinels for feminization effects as male specimens are more sensitive than humans to exogenous estrogenic compounds. High mountain lakes, the most distant environments of continental areas, only receive semi-volatile compounds from atmospheric deposition. We analyzed the expression levels of estrogen-regulated genes in male fish from these mountain lakes in Europe. Incipient feminization involving expression of estrogen receptor and zona radiata genes revealed a widespread diffuse estrogenic impact. This effect was correlated with the concentrations of some organochlorine compounds in fish and was consistent with the persistent occurrence of these tropospheric pollutants in the most remote planet regions. These results should be of general concern given the increasing endocrine disruption effects in human populations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus