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Fecal virome analysis of three carnivores reveals a novel nodavirus and multiple gemycircularviruses.

Conceição-Neto N, Zeller M, Heylen E, Lefrère H, Mesquita JR, Matthijnssens J - Virol. J. (2015)

Bottom Line: In this study we performed viral metagenomic analysis of fecal samples from three healthy carnivores: a badger (Meles meles), a mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) and an otter (Lutra lutra) from Portugal.Four of these gemycircularviruses were found in the mongoose and one in the badger.In addition we also identified an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene from a putative novel member of the Nodaviridae family in the fecal material of the otter.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of viral metagenomics, Rega Institute for Medical Research Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, KU Leuven - University of Leuven, Leuven, B-3000, Belgium. nadia.daconceicaoneto@uzleuven.be.

ABSTRACT

Background: More knowledge about viral populations in wild animals is needed in order to better understand and assess the risk of zoonotic diseases. In this study we performed viral metagenomic analysis of fecal samples from three healthy carnivores: a badger (Meles meles), a mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) and an otter (Lutra lutra) from Portugal.

Results: We detected the presence of novel highly divergent viruses in the fecal material of the carnivores analyzed, such as five gemycircularviruses. Four of these gemycircularviruses were found in the mongoose and one in the badger. In addition we also identified an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene from a putative novel member of the Nodaviridae family in the fecal material of the otter.

Conclusions: Together these results underline that many novel viruses are yet to be discovered and that fecal associated viruses are not always related to disease. Our study expands the knowledge of viral species present in the gut, although the interpretation of the true host species of such novel viruses needs to be reviewed with great caution.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree of the RNA1 of several Nodaviridae and Lunovirus. The tree represents viral members of the Nodaviridae and the partial RNA1 of the Lunovirus identified in the otter (Bootstrap values even or greater than 70 are shown). Viruses represented with an asterisk (*) have been currently recognized as Alphanodaviruses and viruses represented with a number sign (#) have been recognized as Betanodaviruses by the ICTV [34]
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Fig2: Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree of the RNA1 of several Nodaviridae and Lunovirus. The tree represents viral members of the Nodaviridae and the partial RNA1 of the Lunovirus identified in the otter (Bootstrap values even or greater than 70 are shown). Viruses represented with an asterisk (*) have been currently recognized as Alphanodaviruses and viruses represented with a number sign (#) have been recognized as Betanodaviruses by the ICTV [34]

Mentions: The Nodaviridae family comprises two genera Alphanodavirus and the Betanodavirus of bipartite single stranded RNA viruses [31]. Alphanodaviruses are usually insect viruses whereas betanodaviruses infect fish and are responsible for viral nervous necrosis in numerous fish species [32, 33]. Nodaviruses have two segments, RNA1 (3.2 kb) encodes for a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) responsible for its RNA replication and RNA2 (1.2 kb) encodes for a capsid protein [31]. Nodaviruses are classified by the ICTV (International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses) according to the genetic diversity of the RNA2 segment [34]. In the fecal material of the otter we identified a partial RNA1 of a novel putative Nodavirus (1.7 kb), which was most closely related to the recently discovered Mosinovirus, isolated from mosquitoes, sharing 43 % similarity on the amino-acid level (Fig. 2). Adopting the convention of naming based on Schuster and colleagues for Mosinovirus virus (mosquito nodavirus), we have tentatively named the virus Lunovirus (Lutra lutra nodavirus) [35]. As the RNA2 of Lunovirus was not found, most likely due to the fact that it is highly divergent and could not be detected by similarity searches in current viral databases, we should be reluctant to suggest a final classification. However, based on the large divergence of the Lunovirus RNA1 with the RNA1 of other nodaviruses, it seems likely that the Lunovirus is a novel member of the Nodaviridae family.Fig. 2


Fecal virome analysis of three carnivores reveals a novel nodavirus and multiple gemycircularviruses.

Conceição-Neto N, Zeller M, Heylen E, Lefrère H, Mesquita JR, Matthijnssens J - Virol. J. (2015)

Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree of the RNA1 of several Nodaviridae and Lunovirus. The tree represents viral members of the Nodaviridae and the partial RNA1 of the Lunovirus identified in the otter (Bootstrap values even or greater than 70 are shown). Viruses represented with an asterisk (*) have been currently recognized as Alphanodaviruses and viruses represented with a number sign (#) have been recognized as Betanodaviruses by the ICTV [34]
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4459443&req=5

Fig2: Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree of the RNA1 of several Nodaviridae and Lunovirus. The tree represents viral members of the Nodaviridae and the partial RNA1 of the Lunovirus identified in the otter (Bootstrap values even or greater than 70 are shown). Viruses represented with an asterisk (*) have been currently recognized as Alphanodaviruses and viruses represented with a number sign (#) have been recognized as Betanodaviruses by the ICTV [34]
Mentions: The Nodaviridae family comprises two genera Alphanodavirus and the Betanodavirus of bipartite single stranded RNA viruses [31]. Alphanodaviruses are usually insect viruses whereas betanodaviruses infect fish and are responsible for viral nervous necrosis in numerous fish species [32, 33]. Nodaviruses have two segments, RNA1 (3.2 kb) encodes for a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) responsible for its RNA replication and RNA2 (1.2 kb) encodes for a capsid protein [31]. Nodaviruses are classified by the ICTV (International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses) according to the genetic diversity of the RNA2 segment [34]. In the fecal material of the otter we identified a partial RNA1 of a novel putative Nodavirus (1.7 kb), which was most closely related to the recently discovered Mosinovirus, isolated from mosquitoes, sharing 43 % similarity on the amino-acid level (Fig. 2). Adopting the convention of naming based on Schuster and colleagues for Mosinovirus virus (mosquito nodavirus), we have tentatively named the virus Lunovirus (Lutra lutra nodavirus) [35]. As the RNA2 of Lunovirus was not found, most likely due to the fact that it is highly divergent and could not be detected by similarity searches in current viral databases, we should be reluctant to suggest a final classification. However, based on the large divergence of the Lunovirus RNA1 with the RNA1 of other nodaviruses, it seems likely that the Lunovirus is a novel member of the Nodaviridae family.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: In this study we performed viral metagenomic analysis of fecal samples from three healthy carnivores: a badger (Meles meles), a mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) and an otter (Lutra lutra) from Portugal.Four of these gemycircularviruses were found in the mongoose and one in the badger.In addition we also identified an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene from a putative novel member of the Nodaviridae family in the fecal material of the otter.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of viral metagenomics, Rega Institute for Medical Research Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, KU Leuven - University of Leuven, Leuven, B-3000, Belgium. nadia.daconceicaoneto@uzleuven.be.

ABSTRACT

Background: More knowledge about viral populations in wild animals is needed in order to better understand and assess the risk of zoonotic diseases. In this study we performed viral metagenomic analysis of fecal samples from three healthy carnivores: a badger (Meles meles), a mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) and an otter (Lutra lutra) from Portugal.

Results: We detected the presence of novel highly divergent viruses in the fecal material of the carnivores analyzed, such as five gemycircularviruses. Four of these gemycircularviruses were found in the mongoose and one in the badger. In addition we also identified an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene from a putative novel member of the Nodaviridae family in the fecal material of the otter.

Conclusions: Together these results underline that many novel viruses are yet to be discovered and that fecal associated viruses are not always related to disease. Our study expands the knowledge of viral species present in the gut, although the interpretation of the true host species of such novel viruses needs to be reviewed with great caution.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus