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Organic matter source and degradation as revealed by molecular biomarkers in agricultural soils of Yuanyang terrace.

Li F, Pan B, Zhang D, Yang X, Li H, Liao S, Ghaffar A, Peng H, Xing B - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Three soils with different tillage activities were collected and compared for their organic matter sources and degradation.BC was involved in mineral interactions for TD and TP.The dynamics of organic matter needs to be extensively examined for their nonideal interactions with contaminants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Environmental Science &Engineering, Kunming University of Science &Technology, Kunming, 650500, China.

ABSTRACT
Three soils with different tillage activities were collected and compared for their organic matter sources and degradation. Two soils (TD and TP) with human activities showed more diverse of chemicals in both free lipids and CuO oxidation products than the one (NS) without human activities. Branched alkanoic acids only accounted for less than 5% of lipids, indicating limited microbial inputs in all three investigated soils. The degradation of lignin in NS and TD was relatively higher than TP, probably because of the chemical degradation, most likely UV light-involved photodegradation. Lignin parameters obtained from CuO oxidation products confirmed that woody gymnosperm tissue (such as pine trees) may be the main source for NS, while angiosperm tissues from vascular plant may be the predominant source for the lignins in TD and TP. Analysis of BPCAs illustrated that BC in NS may be mainly originated from soot or other fossil carbon sources, whereas BC in TD and TP may be produced during corn stalk and straw burning. BC was involved in mineral interactions for TD and TP. The dynamics of organic matter needs to be extensively examined for their nonideal interactions with contaminants.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Biomarker concentrations and their comparison in CuO oxidation products of three soils.A: Carbon-normalized concentrations of main biomarkers in CuO oxidation products; B: Carbon-normalized concentrations of vanillyl (V), syringy (S) and cinnamyl (C) phenols; C: Degradation parameters of CuO products. (Ad/Al)v: ratio of vanillic acid to vanillin in the vanillyl unit; (Ad/Al)s: ratio of syringic acid to syringaldehyde in the syringyl unit; (Ad/Al)p: ratio of p-hydroxybenzoic acid to p-hydroxybenzaldehyde; 3,5-DHBA/V: ratio of 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid to vanillyl unit.
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f3: Biomarker concentrations and their comparison in CuO oxidation products of three soils.A: Carbon-normalized concentrations of main biomarkers in CuO oxidation products; B: Carbon-normalized concentrations of vanillyl (V), syringy (S) and cinnamyl (C) phenols; C: Degradation parameters of CuO products. (Ad/Al)v: ratio of vanillic acid to vanillin in the vanillyl unit; (Ad/Al)s: ratio of syringic acid to syringaldehyde in the syringyl unit; (Ad/Al)p: ratio of p-hydroxybenzoic acid to p-hydroxybenzaldehyde; 3,5-DHBA/V: ratio of 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid to vanillyl unit.

Mentions: Major products of CuO oxidation in the three investigated soils were benzyls, phenols, short-chain n-alkanedioic acids and hydroxyl acids (Figure S2). Again, NS showed less abundance of chemicals in CuO oxidation products (Table S2). Five lignin parameters, namely S (syringyls), V (vanillyls), C (cinnamyls), S/V, and C/V, contain important information regarding plant-sources of SOM23. The amounts of V and S were much higher than C (Fig. 3B) in TD and TP, indicating their dominated contribution of woody plant tissue2324. S/V value is widely used to differentiate the relative contributions of gymnosperm or angiosperm (S/V > 0.6)25. This value varied in the range of 0.23–0.84 in the three soils with the highest in TP. Angiosperm tissues from vascular plant may be the predominant source for the lignins in TD and TP as suggested by their S/V values above 0.6. Gymnosperm tissue may be the main source for NS as suggested by it low S/V value (0.23), which is consistent with the dominant pine species in the sampling area.


Organic matter source and degradation as revealed by molecular biomarkers in agricultural soils of Yuanyang terrace.

Li F, Pan B, Zhang D, Yang X, Li H, Liao S, Ghaffar A, Peng H, Xing B - Sci Rep (2015)

Biomarker concentrations and their comparison in CuO oxidation products of three soils.A: Carbon-normalized concentrations of main biomarkers in CuO oxidation products; B: Carbon-normalized concentrations of vanillyl (V), syringy (S) and cinnamyl (C) phenols; C: Degradation parameters of CuO products. (Ad/Al)v: ratio of vanillic acid to vanillin in the vanillyl unit; (Ad/Al)s: ratio of syringic acid to syringaldehyde in the syringyl unit; (Ad/Al)p: ratio of p-hydroxybenzoic acid to p-hydroxybenzaldehyde; 3,5-DHBA/V: ratio of 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid to vanillyl unit.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4457134&req=5

f3: Biomarker concentrations and their comparison in CuO oxidation products of three soils.A: Carbon-normalized concentrations of main biomarkers in CuO oxidation products; B: Carbon-normalized concentrations of vanillyl (V), syringy (S) and cinnamyl (C) phenols; C: Degradation parameters of CuO products. (Ad/Al)v: ratio of vanillic acid to vanillin in the vanillyl unit; (Ad/Al)s: ratio of syringic acid to syringaldehyde in the syringyl unit; (Ad/Al)p: ratio of p-hydroxybenzoic acid to p-hydroxybenzaldehyde; 3,5-DHBA/V: ratio of 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid to vanillyl unit.
Mentions: Major products of CuO oxidation in the three investigated soils were benzyls, phenols, short-chain n-alkanedioic acids and hydroxyl acids (Figure S2). Again, NS showed less abundance of chemicals in CuO oxidation products (Table S2). Five lignin parameters, namely S (syringyls), V (vanillyls), C (cinnamyls), S/V, and C/V, contain important information regarding plant-sources of SOM23. The amounts of V and S were much higher than C (Fig. 3B) in TD and TP, indicating their dominated contribution of woody plant tissue2324. S/V value is widely used to differentiate the relative contributions of gymnosperm or angiosperm (S/V > 0.6)25. This value varied in the range of 0.23–0.84 in the three soils with the highest in TP. Angiosperm tissues from vascular plant may be the predominant source for the lignins in TD and TP as suggested by their S/V values above 0.6. Gymnosperm tissue may be the main source for NS as suggested by it low S/V value (0.23), which is consistent with the dominant pine species in the sampling area.

Bottom Line: Three soils with different tillage activities were collected and compared for their organic matter sources and degradation.BC was involved in mineral interactions for TD and TP.The dynamics of organic matter needs to be extensively examined for their nonideal interactions with contaminants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Environmental Science &Engineering, Kunming University of Science &Technology, Kunming, 650500, China.

ABSTRACT
Three soils with different tillage activities were collected and compared for their organic matter sources and degradation. Two soils (TD and TP) with human activities showed more diverse of chemicals in both free lipids and CuO oxidation products than the one (NS) without human activities. Branched alkanoic acids only accounted for less than 5% of lipids, indicating limited microbial inputs in all three investigated soils. The degradation of lignin in NS and TD was relatively higher than TP, probably because of the chemical degradation, most likely UV light-involved photodegradation. Lignin parameters obtained from CuO oxidation products confirmed that woody gymnosperm tissue (such as pine trees) may be the main source for NS, while angiosperm tissues from vascular plant may be the predominant source for the lignins in TD and TP. Analysis of BPCAs illustrated that BC in NS may be mainly originated from soot or other fossil carbon sources, whereas BC in TD and TP may be produced during corn stalk and straw burning. BC was involved in mineral interactions for TD and TP. The dynamics of organic matter needs to be extensively examined for their nonideal interactions with contaminants.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus