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Frequency and co-prescription pattern of Chinese herbal products for hypertension in Taiwan: a Cohort study.

Yang PR, Shih WT, Chu YH, Chen PC, Wu CY - BMC Complement Altern Med (2015)

Bottom Line: The database of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims was obtained from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan.We also applied association rules to evaluate the CHPs co-prescription patterns.Future studies on the efficacy and safety of these CHPs and on drug-herb interactions are warranted.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, No.6, W. Sec., Jiapu RD., Puzi City, Chia-Yi County, 61363, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT

Background: Chinese herbal products (CHPs) have been frequently used among patients with chronic diseases including hypertension; however, the co-prescription pattern of herbal formulae and single herbs remain uncharacterized. Thus, this large-scale pharmacoepidemiological study evaluated the frequency and co-prescription pattern of CHPs for treating hypertension in Taiwan from 2003 to 2009.

Methods: The database of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims was obtained from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan. Patients with hypertension during study period were defined according to diagnostic codes in the International Classification of Disease Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. The frequencies and percentages of herbal formula and single herb prescriptions for hypertension were analyzed. We also applied association rules to evaluate the CHPs co-prescription patterns.

Results: The hypertension cohort included 154,083 patients, 123,240 patients of which (approximately 80 %) had used TCM at least once. In total, 81,582 visits involving CHP prescriptions were hypertension related; Tian-Ma-Gou-Teng-Yin and Dan Shen (Radix Salvia Miltiorrhizae) were the most frequently prescribed herbal formula and single herb, respectively, for treating hypertension.

Conclusions: This study elucidated the utilization pattern of CHPs for treating hypertension. Future studies on the efficacy and safety of these CHPs and on drug-herb interactions are warranted.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Basic Concepts and Algorithms of Association rules
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Fig1: Basic Concepts and Algorithms of Association rules

Mentions: Drug registration numbers from the Department of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy website were linked to the outpatients visit records of the hypertension cohort. Database software, SAS Version 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA), was used for data linkage and descriptive statistic analysis of drug utilization pattern, including frequencies, percentages, average daily dose(g), and average use duration(days) of herbal formulae or single herbs for treating hypertension. In general, TCM physicians prescribe one or more herbal formulae including several single herbs to treat patients. In this study, the association rules of data mining were applied to assess the co-prescriptions of CHPs for hypertension. The support factor was the proportion of the co-prescriptions of medications A and B among all prescriptions, and the confidence factor was the proportion of the co-prescriptions of medications A and B among all prescriptions containing medication A (Fig. 1). We used 0.5 % as the minimum support factor and 30 % as the minimum confidence factor [13].Fig. 1


Frequency and co-prescription pattern of Chinese herbal products for hypertension in Taiwan: a Cohort study.

Yang PR, Shih WT, Chu YH, Chen PC, Wu CY - BMC Complement Altern Med (2015)

Basic Concepts and Algorithms of Association rules
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4457084&req=5

Fig1: Basic Concepts and Algorithms of Association rules
Mentions: Drug registration numbers from the Department of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy website were linked to the outpatients visit records of the hypertension cohort. Database software, SAS Version 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA), was used for data linkage and descriptive statistic analysis of drug utilization pattern, including frequencies, percentages, average daily dose(g), and average use duration(days) of herbal formulae or single herbs for treating hypertension. In general, TCM physicians prescribe one or more herbal formulae including several single herbs to treat patients. In this study, the association rules of data mining were applied to assess the co-prescriptions of CHPs for hypertension. The support factor was the proportion of the co-prescriptions of medications A and B among all prescriptions, and the confidence factor was the proportion of the co-prescriptions of medications A and B among all prescriptions containing medication A (Fig. 1). We used 0.5 % as the minimum support factor and 30 % as the minimum confidence factor [13].Fig. 1

Bottom Line: The database of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims was obtained from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan.We also applied association rules to evaluate the CHPs co-prescription patterns.Future studies on the efficacy and safety of these CHPs and on drug-herb interactions are warranted.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, No.6, W. Sec., Jiapu RD., Puzi City, Chia-Yi County, 61363, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT

Background: Chinese herbal products (CHPs) have been frequently used among patients with chronic diseases including hypertension; however, the co-prescription pattern of herbal formulae and single herbs remain uncharacterized. Thus, this large-scale pharmacoepidemiological study evaluated the frequency and co-prescription pattern of CHPs for treating hypertension in Taiwan from 2003 to 2009.

Methods: The database of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims was obtained from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan. Patients with hypertension during study period were defined according to diagnostic codes in the International Classification of Disease Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. The frequencies and percentages of herbal formula and single herb prescriptions for hypertension were analyzed. We also applied association rules to evaluate the CHPs co-prescription patterns.

Results: The hypertension cohort included 154,083 patients, 123,240 patients of which (approximately 80 %) had used TCM at least once. In total, 81,582 visits involving CHP prescriptions were hypertension related; Tian-Ma-Gou-Teng-Yin and Dan Shen (Radix Salvia Miltiorrhizae) were the most frequently prescribed herbal formula and single herb, respectively, for treating hypertension.

Conclusions: This study elucidated the utilization pattern of CHPs for treating hypertension. Future studies on the efficacy and safety of these CHPs and on drug-herb interactions are warranted.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus