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Antinociceptive, muscle relaxant and sedative activities of gold nanoparticles generated by methanolic extract of Euphorbia milii.

Islam NU, Khan I, Rauf A, Muhammad N, Shahid M, Shah MR - BMC Complement Altern Med (2015)

Bottom Line: Au-EM produced significant (P < 0.01) antinociceptive effect at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg as compared to the crude E. milii methanolic extract.These results concluded that the gold nanoparticles improved the potency of E. milii methanolic extract and exhibited significant analgesic, muscle relaxant and sedative properties.The significant metals sensing ability and enhanced stability in different NaCl and pH solutions may enable us to explore different formulations of E. milii gold nanoparticles for potentially effective and safe nano-herbal therapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan. islanaz@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Nanotechnology has potential future for enhancing therapeutic efficacy and reducing the unwanted effects of herbal drugs. The biological research on Euphorbia species has been supported by the use of some plants in traditional medicines. Many species of Euphorbia have been reported as having strong sedative and analgesic effects. In the present research work gold nanoparticles of Euphorbia milii methanolic extract (Au-EM) were synthesized, characterized and tested for antinociceptive, muscle relaxant and sedative activities.

Methods: Au-EM was prepared by stirring 1 mM warm trihydrated tetrachloroaurate solution with E. milii methanolic extract without using any external reducing agents. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, infrared spectrophotometery, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy while their stability was evaluated against varying pH and different volumes of sodium chloride (NaCl). The metal sensing capacity of Au-EM was tested towards cobalt, copper, lead, mercury and nickel. Au-EM was evaluated in BALB/c mice at a dose of 10 and 20 mg/kg for antinociceptive, muscle relaxant and sedative activities in comparison with the crude E. milii methanolic extract.

Results: Au-EM showed remarkable stability in different NaCl and pH solutions. Au-EM produced significant (P < 0.01) antinociceptive effect at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg as compared to the crude E. milii methanolic extract. In the rotarod test, Au-EM showed significant muscle relaxant effect at 10 mg/kg (P < 0.05) and 20 mg/kg (P < 0.01) after 30, 60 and 90 min. In an open field test significant sedative effect (P < 0.05) of Au-EM was observed at 10 and 20 mg/kg. Moreover significant detection sensitivity was demonstrated towards all the tested heavy metals.

Conclusions: These results concluded that the gold nanoparticles improved the potency of E. milii methanolic extract and exhibited significant analgesic, muscle relaxant and sedative properties. The significant metals sensing ability and enhanced stability in different NaCl and pH solutions may enable us to explore different formulations of E. milii gold nanoparticles for potentially effective and safe nano-herbal therapy.

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UV-Visible spectra of Au-EM. UV-Visible spectra showing successful formation of Au-EM by observing peaks in the region specified for gold nanoparticles
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Fig1: UV-Visible spectra of Au-EM. UV-Visible spectra showing successful formation of Au-EM by observing peaks in the region specified for gold nanoparticles

Mentions: The gold nanoparticles, which were formed by reacting HAuCl4 and E. milii were detected by UV-Visible spectrophotometer (Hitachi U-3200, Japan), FTIR (Shimadzu, Prestige-21, Japan), atomic force microscope (Agilent Technologies 5500, USA), scanning electron microscope (JSM-5910-JEOL, Japan) and by noticeable color change. By varying the ratio of gold solution and plant extract, the intensity of the peak was changing and a change to visible color was noted. Gold–milii solutions were used in a ratio of 1:1, 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1--- 20:5. The 20 ml 1 mM gold solution and 5 ml plant extract (i.e. 20:5) gave a uniform and sharp peak at 540 nm with an absorbance of 1.89 (Fig. 1). With this ratio a bulk solution was made for further studies.Fig. 1


Antinociceptive, muscle relaxant and sedative activities of gold nanoparticles generated by methanolic extract of Euphorbia milii.

Islam NU, Khan I, Rauf A, Muhammad N, Shahid M, Shah MR - BMC Complement Altern Med (2015)

UV-Visible spectra of Au-EM. UV-Visible spectra showing successful formation of Au-EM by observing peaks in the region specified for gold nanoparticles
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4446853&req=5

Fig1: UV-Visible spectra of Au-EM. UV-Visible spectra showing successful formation of Au-EM by observing peaks in the region specified for gold nanoparticles
Mentions: The gold nanoparticles, which were formed by reacting HAuCl4 and E. milii were detected by UV-Visible spectrophotometer (Hitachi U-3200, Japan), FTIR (Shimadzu, Prestige-21, Japan), atomic force microscope (Agilent Technologies 5500, USA), scanning electron microscope (JSM-5910-JEOL, Japan) and by noticeable color change. By varying the ratio of gold solution and plant extract, the intensity of the peak was changing and a change to visible color was noted. Gold–milii solutions were used in a ratio of 1:1, 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1--- 20:5. The 20 ml 1 mM gold solution and 5 ml plant extract (i.e. 20:5) gave a uniform and sharp peak at 540 nm with an absorbance of 1.89 (Fig. 1). With this ratio a bulk solution was made for further studies.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Au-EM produced significant (P < 0.01) antinociceptive effect at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg as compared to the crude E. milii methanolic extract.These results concluded that the gold nanoparticles improved the potency of E. milii methanolic extract and exhibited significant analgesic, muscle relaxant and sedative properties.The significant metals sensing ability and enhanced stability in different NaCl and pH solutions may enable us to explore different formulations of E. milii gold nanoparticles for potentially effective and safe nano-herbal therapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan. islanaz@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Nanotechnology has potential future for enhancing therapeutic efficacy and reducing the unwanted effects of herbal drugs. The biological research on Euphorbia species has been supported by the use of some plants in traditional medicines. Many species of Euphorbia have been reported as having strong sedative and analgesic effects. In the present research work gold nanoparticles of Euphorbia milii methanolic extract (Au-EM) were synthesized, characterized and tested for antinociceptive, muscle relaxant and sedative activities.

Methods: Au-EM was prepared by stirring 1 mM warm trihydrated tetrachloroaurate solution with E. milii methanolic extract without using any external reducing agents. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, infrared spectrophotometery, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy while their stability was evaluated against varying pH and different volumes of sodium chloride (NaCl). The metal sensing capacity of Au-EM was tested towards cobalt, copper, lead, mercury and nickel. Au-EM was evaluated in BALB/c mice at a dose of 10 and 20 mg/kg for antinociceptive, muscle relaxant and sedative activities in comparison with the crude E. milii methanolic extract.

Results: Au-EM showed remarkable stability in different NaCl and pH solutions. Au-EM produced significant (P < 0.01) antinociceptive effect at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg as compared to the crude E. milii methanolic extract. In the rotarod test, Au-EM showed significant muscle relaxant effect at 10 mg/kg (P < 0.05) and 20 mg/kg (P < 0.01) after 30, 60 and 90 min. In an open field test significant sedative effect (P < 0.05) of Au-EM was observed at 10 and 20 mg/kg. Moreover significant detection sensitivity was demonstrated towards all the tested heavy metals.

Conclusions: These results concluded that the gold nanoparticles improved the potency of E. milii methanolic extract and exhibited significant analgesic, muscle relaxant and sedative properties. The significant metals sensing ability and enhanced stability in different NaCl and pH solutions may enable us to explore different formulations of E. milii gold nanoparticles for potentially effective and safe nano-herbal therapy.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus