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Thicker temporal cortex associates with a developmental trajectory for psychopathic traits in adolescents.

Yang Y, Wang P, Baker LA, Narr KL, Joshi SH, Hafzalla G, Raine A, Thompson PM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Specifically, at age 14, higher psychopathic scores were correlated with thinner cortex in the middle frontal gyrus, particularly in females, and thicker cortex in the superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and parahippocampal gyrus, particularly in males.Longitudinally, individual rates of change in psychopathic tendency over time were correlated with thicker cortex in the superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and posterior cingulate gyrus, particularly in males.Findings suggest that abnormal cortical thickness may reflect a delay in brain maturation, resulting in disturbances in frontal and temporal functioning such as impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and emotional dysregulation in adolescents.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Psychopathy is a clinical condition characterized by a failure in normal social interaction and morality. Recent studies have begun to reveal brain structural abnormalities associated with psychopathic tendencies in children. However, little is known about whether variations in brain morphology are linked to the developmental trajectory of psychopathic traits over time. In this study, structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data from 108 14-year-old adolescents with no history of substance abuse (54 males and 54 females) were examined to detect cortical thickness variations associated with psychopathic traits and individual rates of change in psychopathic traits from ages 9 to 18. We found cortical thickness abnormalities to correlate with psychopathic traits both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Specifically, at age 14, higher psychopathic scores were correlated with thinner cortex in the middle frontal gyrus, particularly in females, and thicker cortex in the superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and parahippocampal gyrus, particularly in males. Longitudinally, individual rates of change in psychopathic tendency over time were correlated with thicker cortex in the superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and posterior cingulate gyrus, particularly in males. Findings suggest that abnormal cortical thickness may reflect a delay in brain maturation, resulting in disturbances in frontal and temporal functioning such as impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and emotional dysregulation in adolescents. Thus, findings provide initial evidence supporting that abnormal cortical thickness may serve as a biomarker for the development of psychopathic propensity in adolescents.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Biometric Latent Growth Model for Estimating Individual Rate of Change (Slope) for the CPS Scores.Here we adapted a classical biometric latent growth model—for psychopathic personality—to estimate the initial level (intercept; G0) and the rate of change (slope; G1) across four waves of assessment. We computed these from the intercept (β0) and age-based slope (β1) values, respectively. The triangle represents the unit constant where the one-headed arrow from the unit constant represents the mean; all paths that are not explicitly labeled in the diagram are set to one. The basis coefficients α[t] are weights used to represent the function of time for the observations at wave 2 and wave 3.
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pone.0127025.g002: Biometric Latent Growth Model for Estimating Individual Rate of Change (Slope) for the CPS Scores.Here we adapted a classical biometric latent growth model—for psychopathic personality—to estimate the initial level (intercept; G0) and the rate of change (slope; G1) across four waves of assessment. We computed these from the intercept (β0) and age-based slope (β1) values, respectively. The triangle represents the unit constant where the one-headed arrow from the unit constant represents the mean; all paths that are not explicitly labeled in the diagram are set to one. The basis coefficients α[t] are weights used to represent the function of time for the observations at wave 2 and wave 3.

Mentions: In the present study, we focused on two developmental components of psychopathy: cross-sectional psychopathy scores (at the time of the brain scan) and the rate of change in psychopathy over time (i.e., the slope across waves). The individual rates of change over time (with direction) can be estimated with data from more than two time points and linked to brain morphometry to identify biomarkers for the trajectory of psychopathic tendency. To estimate the slope, an individual summary statistics is typically computed as the regression of outcomes Yij on time tj: Yij = β0i + β 1itj + εij. However, because our data involves related subjects, a more complex latent growth model (Fig 2), implemented using Mplus [33] [34, 35], was fitted to the scores from each available wave to obtain the intercept and change rate for the CPS scores for each individual. As illustrated in Fig 1, the initial level (intercept; G0) and the rate of change (slope; G1) across waves were determined by examining the intercept (β0) and age-based slope (β1) values for the CPS scores, and the basis coefficients α[t] weights were used to represent the function of time for the observations at wave 2 and 3. Although not all subjects were assessed at all waves, this method allowed us to utilize all available data to identify neural correlates associated with the rate of change in psychopathic tendency from childhood to adolescence. It is worth mentioning that, of all 108 subjects, only 46 had psychopathy scores at age 16–18. Because this late adolescent period is an important age range for the manifestation of psychopathy, the reduced sample at this wave may have impacted our estimation of changes in psychopathic tendency over time.


Thicker temporal cortex associates with a developmental trajectory for psychopathic traits in adolescents.

Yang Y, Wang P, Baker LA, Narr KL, Joshi SH, Hafzalla G, Raine A, Thompson PM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Biometric Latent Growth Model for Estimating Individual Rate of Change (Slope) for the CPS Scores.Here we adapted a classical biometric latent growth model—for psychopathic personality—to estimate the initial level (intercept; G0) and the rate of change (slope; G1) across four waves of assessment. We computed these from the intercept (β0) and age-based slope (β1) values, respectively. The triangle represents the unit constant where the one-headed arrow from the unit constant represents the mean; all paths that are not explicitly labeled in the diagram are set to one. The basis coefficients α[t] are weights used to represent the function of time for the observations at wave 2 and wave 3.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4446360&req=5

pone.0127025.g002: Biometric Latent Growth Model for Estimating Individual Rate of Change (Slope) for the CPS Scores.Here we adapted a classical biometric latent growth model—for psychopathic personality—to estimate the initial level (intercept; G0) and the rate of change (slope; G1) across four waves of assessment. We computed these from the intercept (β0) and age-based slope (β1) values, respectively. The triangle represents the unit constant where the one-headed arrow from the unit constant represents the mean; all paths that are not explicitly labeled in the diagram are set to one. The basis coefficients α[t] are weights used to represent the function of time for the observations at wave 2 and wave 3.
Mentions: In the present study, we focused on two developmental components of psychopathy: cross-sectional psychopathy scores (at the time of the brain scan) and the rate of change in psychopathy over time (i.e., the slope across waves). The individual rates of change over time (with direction) can be estimated with data from more than two time points and linked to brain morphometry to identify biomarkers for the trajectory of psychopathic tendency. To estimate the slope, an individual summary statistics is typically computed as the regression of outcomes Yij on time tj: Yij = β0i + β 1itj + εij. However, because our data involves related subjects, a more complex latent growth model (Fig 2), implemented using Mplus [33] [34, 35], was fitted to the scores from each available wave to obtain the intercept and change rate for the CPS scores for each individual. As illustrated in Fig 1, the initial level (intercept; G0) and the rate of change (slope; G1) across waves were determined by examining the intercept (β0) and age-based slope (β1) values for the CPS scores, and the basis coefficients α[t] weights were used to represent the function of time for the observations at wave 2 and 3. Although not all subjects were assessed at all waves, this method allowed us to utilize all available data to identify neural correlates associated with the rate of change in psychopathic tendency from childhood to adolescence. It is worth mentioning that, of all 108 subjects, only 46 had psychopathy scores at age 16–18. Because this late adolescent period is an important age range for the manifestation of psychopathy, the reduced sample at this wave may have impacted our estimation of changes in psychopathic tendency over time.

Bottom Line: Specifically, at age 14, higher psychopathic scores were correlated with thinner cortex in the middle frontal gyrus, particularly in females, and thicker cortex in the superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and parahippocampal gyrus, particularly in males.Longitudinally, individual rates of change in psychopathic tendency over time were correlated with thicker cortex in the superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and posterior cingulate gyrus, particularly in males.Findings suggest that abnormal cortical thickness may reflect a delay in brain maturation, resulting in disturbances in frontal and temporal functioning such as impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and emotional dysregulation in adolescents.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Psychopathy is a clinical condition characterized by a failure in normal social interaction and morality. Recent studies have begun to reveal brain structural abnormalities associated with psychopathic tendencies in children. However, little is known about whether variations in brain morphology are linked to the developmental trajectory of psychopathic traits over time. In this study, structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data from 108 14-year-old adolescents with no history of substance abuse (54 males and 54 females) were examined to detect cortical thickness variations associated with psychopathic traits and individual rates of change in psychopathic traits from ages 9 to 18. We found cortical thickness abnormalities to correlate with psychopathic traits both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Specifically, at age 14, higher psychopathic scores were correlated with thinner cortex in the middle frontal gyrus, particularly in females, and thicker cortex in the superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and parahippocampal gyrus, particularly in males. Longitudinally, individual rates of change in psychopathic tendency over time were correlated with thicker cortex in the superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and posterior cingulate gyrus, particularly in males. Findings suggest that abnormal cortical thickness may reflect a delay in brain maturation, resulting in disturbances in frontal and temporal functioning such as impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and emotional dysregulation in adolescents. Thus, findings provide initial evidence supporting that abnormal cortical thickness may serve as a biomarker for the development of psychopathic propensity in adolescents.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus