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Exercise is More Effective at Altering Gut Microbial Composition and Producing Stable Changes in Lean Mass in Juvenile versus Adult Male F344 Rats.

Mika A, Van Treuren W, González A, Herrera JJ, Knight R, Fleshner M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Recent insights have revealed that increasing physical activity can increase the abundance of beneficial microbial species.Alpha diversity measures revealed that the microbial communities of young runners were less even and diverse, a community structure that reflects volatility and malleability.Given the potential of these changes to contribute to a lean phenotype, we examined body composition in juvenile versus adult runners.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Integrative Physiology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, 80301, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The mammalian intestine harbors a complex microbial ecosystem that influences many aspects of host physiology. Exposure to specific microbes early in development affects host metabolism, immune function, and behavior across the lifespan. Just as the physiology of the developing organism undergoes a period of plasticity, the developing microbial ecosystem is characterized by instability and may also be more sensitive to change. Early life thus presents a window of opportunity for manipulations that produce adaptive changes in microbial composition. Recent insights have revealed that increasing physical activity can increase the abundance of beneficial microbial species. We therefore investigated whether six weeks of wheel running initiated in the juvenile period (postnatal day 24) would produce more robust and stable changes in microbial communities versus exercise initiated in adulthood (postnatal day 70) in male F344 rats. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to characterize the microbial composition of juvenile versus adult runners and their sedentary counterparts across multiple time points during exercise and following exercise cessation. Alpha diversity measures revealed that the microbial communities of young runners were less even and diverse, a community structure that reflects volatility and malleability. Juvenile onset exercise altered several phyla and, notably, increased Bacteroidetes and decreased Firmicutes, a configuration associated with leanness. At the genus level of taxonomy, exercise altered more genera in juveniles than in the adults and produced patterns associated with adaptive metabolic consequences. Given the potential of these changes to contribute to a lean phenotype, we examined body composition in juvenile versus adult runners. Interestingly, exercise produced persistent increases in lean body mass in juvenile but not adult runners. Taken together, these results indicate that the impact of exercise on gut microbiota composition as well as body composition may depend on the developmental stage during which exercise is initiated.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Early life exercise and age altered beta diversity.Principle coordinates analysis (PCoA) using unweighted UniFrac distances with an explicit time axis depicts clustering of microbial communities due to age after three days (3d) and six weeks (6 wk) of exercise and 25 days following exercise cessation (25d post). After 6 wk, a clear clustering of juvenile run versus juvenile sed samples is noticeable.
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pone.0125889.g003: Early life exercise and age altered beta diversity.Principle coordinates analysis (PCoA) using unweighted UniFrac distances with an explicit time axis depicts clustering of microbial communities due to age after three days (3d) and six weeks (6 wk) of exercise and 25 days following exercise cessation (25d post). After 6 wk, a clear clustering of juvenile run versus juvenile sed samples is noticeable.

Mentions: Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) using unweighted UniFrac distances with an explicit time axis revealed clustering of the microbial communities of juveniles versus adults at each time point (Fig 3). After six weeks of exercise, a clear clustering of the microbial communities of juvenile runners versus juvenile sedentary rats is evident, with no noticeable pattern within the adults.


Exercise is More Effective at Altering Gut Microbial Composition and Producing Stable Changes in Lean Mass in Juvenile versus Adult Male F344 Rats.

Mika A, Van Treuren W, González A, Herrera JJ, Knight R, Fleshner M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Early life exercise and age altered beta diversity.Principle coordinates analysis (PCoA) using unweighted UniFrac distances with an explicit time axis depicts clustering of microbial communities due to age after three days (3d) and six weeks (6 wk) of exercise and 25 days following exercise cessation (25d post). After 6 wk, a clear clustering of juvenile run versus juvenile sed samples is noticeable.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4446322&req=5

pone.0125889.g003: Early life exercise and age altered beta diversity.Principle coordinates analysis (PCoA) using unweighted UniFrac distances with an explicit time axis depicts clustering of microbial communities due to age after three days (3d) and six weeks (6 wk) of exercise and 25 days following exercise cessation (25d post). After 6 wk, a clear clustering of juvenile run versus juvenile sed samples is noticeable.
Mentions: Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) using unweighted UniFrac distances with an explicit time axis revealed clustering of the microbial communities of juveniles versus adults at each time point (Fig 3). After six weeks of exercise, a clear clustering of the microbial communities of juvenile runners versus juvenile sedentary rats is evident, with no noticeable pattern within the adults.

Bottom Line: Recent insights have revealed that increasing physical activity can increase the abundance of beneficial microbial species.Alpha diversity measures revealed that the microbial communities of young runners were less even and diverse, a community structure that reflects volatility and malleability.Given the potential of these changes to contribute to a lean phenotype, we examined body composition in juvenile versus adult runners.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Integrative Physiology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, 80301, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The mammalian intestine harbors a complex microbial ecosystem that influences many aspects of host physiology. Exposure to specific microbes early in development affects host metabolism, immune function, and behavior across the lifespan. Just as the physiology of the developing organism undergoes a period of plasticity, the developing microbial ecosystem is characterized by instability and may also be more sensitive to change. Early life thus presents a window of opportunity for manipulations that produce adaptive changes in microbial composition. Recent insights have revealed that increasing physical activity can increase the abundance of beneficial microbial species. We therefore investigated whether six weeks of wheel running initiated in the juvenile period (postnatal day 24) would produce more robust and stable changes in microbial communities versus exercise initiated in adulthood (postnatal day 70) in male F344 rats. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to characterize the microbial composition of juvenile versus adult runners and their sedentary counterparts across multiple time points during exercise and following exercise cessation. Alpha diversity measures revealed that the microbial communities of young runners were less even and diverse, a community structure that reflects volatility and malleability. Juvenile onset exercise altered several phyla and, notably, increased Bacteroidetes and decreased Firmicutes, a configuration associated with leanness. At the genus level of taxonomy, exercise altered more genera in juveniles than in the adults and produced patterns associated with adaptive metabolic consequences. Given the potential of these changes to contribute to a lean phenotype, we examined body composition in juvenile versus adult runners. Interestingly, exercise produced persistent increases in lean body mass in juvenile but not adult runners. Taken together, these results indicate that the impact of exercise on gut microbiota composition as well as body composition may depend on the developmental stage during which exercise is initiated.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus