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Metasurface Reflector (MSR) Loading for High Performance Small Microstrip Antenna Design.

Ahsan MR, Islam MT, Ullah MH, Singh MJ, Ali MT - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The details of the design progress through numerical simulations and experimental results are presented and discussed accordingly.The investigation shows that utilization of MSR structure has significantly broadened the -10 dB impedance bandwidth than the conventional patch antenna: from 540 to 632 MHz (17%), 467 to 606 MHz (29%) and 758 MHz to 1062 MHz (40%) for three distinct operating bands centered at 0.9, 3.5 and 5.5 GHz.Additionally, due to the assimilation of MSR, the overall realized gains have been upgraded to a higher value of 3.62 dBi, 6.09 dBi and 8.6 dBi for lower, middle and upper frequency band respectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical Electronic and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
A meander stripline feed multiband microstrip antenna loaded with metasurface reflector (MSR) structure has been designed, analyzed and constructed that offers the wireless communication services for UHF/microwave RFID and WLAN/WiMAX applications. The proposed MSR assimilated antenna comprises planar straight forward design of circular shaped radiator with horizontal slots on it and 2D metasurface formed by the periodic square metallic element that resembles the behavior of metamaterials. A custom made high dielectric bio-plastic substrate (εr = 15) is used for fabricating the prototype of the MSR embedded planar monopole antenna. The details of the design progress through numerical simulations and experimental results are presented and discussed accordingly. The measured impedance bandwidth, radiation patterns and gain of the proposed MSR integrated antenna are compared with the obtained results from numerical simulation, and a good compliance can be observed between them. The investigation shows that utilization of MSR structure has significantly broadened the -10 dB impedance bandwidth than the conventional patch antenna: from 540 to 632 MHz (17%), 467 to 606 MHz (29%) and 758 MHz to 1062 MHz (40%) for three distinct operating bands centered at 0.9, 3.5 and 5.5 GHz. Additionally, due to the assimilation of MSR, the overall realized gains have been upgraded to a higher value of 3.62 dBi, 6.09 dBi and 8.6 dBi for lower, middle and upper frequency band respectively. The measured radiation patterns, impedance bandwidths (S11<-10 dB) and gains from the MSR loaded antenna prototype exhibit reasonable characteristics that can satisfy the requirements of UHF/microwave (5.8 GHz) RFID, WiMAX (3.5/5.5 GHz) and WLAN (5.2/5.8 GHz) applications.

No MeSH data available.


The retrieved constitutive parameters, (a) effective permittivity (εeff) and (b) effective permeability (μeff) of the proposed MSR structure.
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pone.0127185.g005: The retrieved constitutive parameters, (a) effective permittivity (εeff) and (b) effective permeability (μeff) of the proposed MSR structure.

Mentions: For achieving better performance out of the conventional patch antenna, the design of the proposed MSR involves artificially engineering the metallic reflecting surface placed below the ground plane by exploiting the unwanted back radiating wave. For the designing of MSR structure, the idea of mesh grid arrays is employed which first implemented by French physicist Stefan Enoch [43]. The MSR structure for the designed antenna comprises of planar 4 x 5 array/matrix of square shaped element. The dimension of the square metallic element is 0.02λx0.02λ (with respect to the lowest resonant mode at 900 MHz) and a gap of 0.007λ is maintained between each of the elements. The graphical and geometrical view of the proposed metasurface structure is given in Fig 1 (B). The square-shaped element for various types of metasurface structures has been studied by the researchers around the world because of their excellent performance [44–46]. The 3D full-wave HFSS electromagnetic simulator is used on 64-bit operating system to predict the performance criteria and corresponding dimensions of the MSR embedded antenna. Through numerous simulation studies, the convergence has been reached by utilizing appropriate boundary conditions assigned to the overall design and setting up variable parameters to the Optimetrics engine of HFSS. Analyzing the antenna performance in terms of S-parameter, gain and radiation patterns, the optimized parameter value of each of the metasurface embedded antenna elements are determined with the help of the data retrieve from HFSS. The microwave interaction of the MSR structure can be examined by determining the effective constitutive parameters from the planar geometrical metasurface. Since the year 2000, some researchers have concentrated their work on easy and robust retrieval method for effective constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) to characterize the metamaterial and metasurface [13,15,47–49]. Most of the techniques are developed on the basis of utilizing the S-parameters (reflection and transmission coefficients) to first calculate the impedance z and refractive index n, and then the permittivity ε and permeability μ is being calculated. By studying the commonly used effective parameter extraction techniques, the effective constitutive parameters, permeability (μeff) and permittivity (εeff) are extracted; the graphical presentation is given in Fig 5. It is evident from the figure that the values of the retrieved parameters from the proposed MSR structure show remarkable behavior by posing the values for effective permeability in the range of 0 < μeff < 1. In a similar manner of applying general equation, the associated index of refraction n can be easily evaluated with the mathematical equation derived from Snell’s law, [14]. So far, if the value of the effective permeability (μeff) for the engineered metasurface structure becomes near to zero, following the equation the refractive index n approaches to zero as well. For a near zero-index material, incidence of plane wave on it transmitted in such a way that the refracted wave is directed along the normal to the interface. This phenomenon also suggests that the metasurface with very small values of index may still offer focusing the electromagnetic waves towards the broadside direction.


Metasurface Reflector (MSR) Loading for High Performance Small Microstrip Antenna Design.

Ahsan MR, Islam MT, Ullah MH, Singh MJ, Ali MT - PLoS ONE (2015)

The retrieved constitutive parameters, (a) effective permittivity (εeff) and (b) effective permeability (μeff) of the proposed MSR structure.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4446261&req=5

pone.0127185.g005: The retrieved constitutive parameters, (a) effective permittivity (εeff) and (b) effective permeability (μeff) of the proposed MSR structure.
Mentions: For achieving better performance out of the conventional patch antenna, the design of the proposed MSR involves artificially engineering the metallic reflecting surface placed below the ground plane by exploiting the unwanted back radiating wave. For the designing of MSR structure, the idea of mesh grid arrays is employed which first implemented by French physicist Stefan Enoch [43]. The MSR structure for the designed antenna comprises of planar 4 x 5 array/matrix of square shaped element. The dimension of the square metallic element is 0.02λx0.02λ (with respect to the lowest resonant mode at 900 MHz) and a gap of 0.007λ is maintained between each of the elements. The graphical and geometrical view of the proposed metasurface structure is given in Fig 1 (B). The square-shaped element for various types of metasurface structures has been studied by the researchers around the world because of their excellent performance [44–46]. The 3D full-wave HFSS electromagnetic simulator is used on 64-bit operating system to predict the performance criteria and corresponding dimensions of the MSR embedded antenna. Through numerous simulation studies, the convergence has been reached by utilizing appropriate boundary conditions assigned to the overall design and setting up variable parameters to the Optimetrics engine of HFSS. Analyzing the antenna performance in terms of S-parameter, gain and radiation patterns, the optimized parameter value of each of the metasurface embedded antenna elements are determined with the help of the data retrieve from HFSS. The microwave interaction of the MSR structure can be examined by determining the effective constitutive parameters from the planar geometrical metasurface. Since the year 2000, some researchers have concentrated their work on easy and robust retrieval method for effective constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) to characterize the metamaterial and metasurface [13,15,47–49]. Most of the techniques are developed on the basis of utilizing the S-parameters (reflection and transmission coefficients) to first calculate the impedance z and refractive index n, and then the permittivity ε and permeability μ is being calculated. By studying the commonly used effective parameter extraction techniques, the effective constitutive parameters, permeability (μeff) and permittivity (εeff) are extracted; the graphical presentation is given in Fig 5. It is evident from the figure that the values of the retrieved parameters from the proposed MSR structure show remarkable behavior by posing the values for effective permeability in the range of 0 < μeff < 1. In a similar manner of applying general equation, the associated index of refraction n can be easily evaluated with the mathematical equation derived from Snell’s law, [14]. So far, if the value of the effective permeability (μeff) for the engineered metasurface structure becomes near to zero, following the equation the refractive index n approaches to zero as well. For a near zero-index material, incidence of plane wave on it transmitted in such a way that the refracted wave is directed along the normal to the interface. This phenomenon also suggests that the metasurface with very small values of index may still offer focusing the electromagnetic waves towards the broadside direction.

Bottom Line: The details of the design progress through numerical simulations and experimental results are presented and discussed accordingly.The investigation shows that utilization of MSR structure has significantly broadened the -10 dB impedance bandwidth than the conventional patch antenna: from 540 to 632 MHz (17%), 467 to 606 MHz (29%) and 758 MHz to 1062 MHz (40%) for three distinct operating bands centered at 0.9, 3.5 and 5.5 GHz.Additionally, due to the assimilation of MSR, the overall realized gains have been upgraded to a higher value of 3.62 dBi, 6.09 dBi and 8.6 dBi for lower, middle and upper frequency band respectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical Electronic and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
A meander stripline feed multiband microstrip antenna loaded with metasurface reflector (MSR) structure has been designed, analyzed and constructed that offers the wireless communication services for UHF/microwave RFID and WLAN/WiMAX applications. The proposed MSR assimilated antenna comprises planar straight forward design of circular shaped radiator with horizontal slots on it and 2D metasurface formed by the periodic square metallic element that resembles the behavior of metamaterials. A custom made high dielectric bio-plastic substrate (εr = 15) is used for fabricating the prototype of the MSR embedded planar monopole antenna. The details of the design progress through numerical simulations and experimental results are presented and discussed accordingly. The measured impedance bandwidth, radiation patterns and gain of the proposed MSR integrated antenna are compared with the obtained results from numerical simulation, and a good compliance can be observed between them. The investigation shows that utilization of MSR structure has significantly broadened the -10 dB impedance bandwidth than the conventional patch antenna: from 540 to 632 MHz (17%), 467 to 606 MHz (29%) and 758 MHz to 1062 MHz (40%) for three distinct operating bands centered at 0.9, 3.5 and 5.5 GHz. Additionally, due to the assimilation of MSR, the overall realized gains have been upgraded to a higher value of 3.62 dBi, 6.09 dBi and 8.6 dBi for lower, middle and upper frequency band respectively. The measured radiation patterns, impedance bandwidths (S11<-10 dB) and gains from the MSR loaded antenna prototype exhibit reasonable characteristics that can satisfy the requirements of UHF/microwave (5.8 GHz) RFID, WiMAX (3.5/5.5 GHz) and WLAN (5.2/5.8 GHz) applications.

No MeSH data available.