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Effect of Ganoderma lucidum spores intervention on glucose and lipid metabolism gene expression profiles in type 2 diabetic rats.

Wang F, Zhou Z, Ren X, Wang Y, Yang R, Luo J, Strappe P - Lipids Health Dis (2015)

Bottom Line: Meanwhile, gene expressions associated with the possible molecular mechanism of GLSP regulation were also investigated using a quantitative RT-PCR.Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed up-regulation of lipid metabolism related genes (Acox1, ACC, Insig-1 and Insig-2) and glycogen synthesis related genes (GS2 and GYG1) in GLSP group compared to model control group.This study might indicate that GLSP consumption could provide a beneficial effect in terms of lowering the blood glucose levels by promoting glycogen synthesis and inhibiting gluconeogenesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin, 300457, China. wangfang@tust.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT

Background: The fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for many years. However, to the date, there is no detailed study for describing the effect of G. lucidum spores on oxidative stress, blood glucose level and lipid compositions in animal models of type 2 diabetic rats, in particular the effect on the gene expression profiles associated with glucose and lipid metabolisms.

Methods: G. lucidum spores powder (GLSP) with a shell-broken rate >99.9 % was used. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8/group). Group 1: Normal control, normal rats with ordinary feed; Group 2: Model control, diabetic rats with ordinary feed without intervention; Group 3: GLSP, diabetic rats with ordinary feed, an intervention group utilizing GLSP of 1 g per day by oral gavages for 4 consecutive weeks. Type 2 diabetic rats were obtained by streptozocin (STZ) injection. The changes in the levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in blood samples were analyzed after GLSP intervention. Meanwhile, gene expressions associated with the possible molecular mechanism of GLSP regulation were also investigated using a quantitative RT-PCR.

Results: The reduction of blood glucose level occurred within the first 2 weeks of GLSP intervention and the lipid synthesis in the diabetic rats of GLSP group was significantly decreased at 4 weeks compared to the model control group. Furthermore, it was also found that GLSP intervention greatly attenuated the level of oxidative stress in the diabetic rats. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed up-regulation of lipid metabolism related genes (Acox1, ACC, Insig-1 and Insig-2) and glycogen synthesis related genes (GS2 and GYG1) in GLSP group compared to model control group. Additionally, there were no significant changes in the expression of other genes, such as SREBP-1, Acly, Fas, Fads1, Gpam, Dgat1, PEPCK and G6PC1.

Conclusion: This study might indicate that GLSP consumption could provide a beneficial effect in terms of lowering the blood glucose levels by promoting glycogen synthesis and inhibiting gluconeogenesis. Meanwhile, GLSP treatment was also associated with the improvement of blood lipid compositions through the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis in the type 2 diabetic rats.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Gene regulation in metabolic pathways manipulated by GLSP in the diet of type 2 diabetic rats. Arrows in red and green indicate gene up-regulation or down-regulation, respectively. GLSP intervention reduced blood glucose level through increasing glycogen synthesis (GS2 and GYG1) and glucose homeostasis (Insig-1 and Insig-2). Concomitantly, the reduction of plasma lipids occurred following GLSP administration, which might be associated with the increasing of genes expression of Acox1 and Insig-1/2
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Fig3: Gene regulation in metabolic pathways manipulated by GLSP in the diet of type 2 diabetic rats. Arrows in red and green indicate gene up-regulation or down-regulation, respectively. GLSP intervention reduced blood glucose level through increasing glycogen synthesis (GS2 and GYG1) and glucose homeostasis (Insig-1 and Insig-2). Concomitantly, the reduction of plasma lipids occurred following GLSP administration, which might be associated with the increasing of genes expression of Acox1 and Insig-1/2

Mentions: In this study, the significant improvement of blood lipid compositions confirmed that GLSP could be used as an efficient therapy for treating hyperlipidemia caused by diabetes and these improvements in blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels might be related to the reduced blood glucose level in the diabetic rats [35, 36]. Nevertheless, other study also suggested that G. lucidum consumption could result in a great suppression of elevated total cholesterol levels, which might be associated with the inhibition of the hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression [17]. The HMG CoA reductase activity associated with lipoprotein metabolism may also contribute to the hypolipidemic effects following GLSP treatment, which is similar to the effects of other plant medicines [37, 38]. Since Insig genes are also associated with lipid metabolism, acyl-CoA oxidase plays an important role in plasma lipid compositions. Fatty acid degradation in most organisms occurs primarily via β-oxidation. Both mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation catalyze the shortening of acyl-CoA esters chains, which requires the participation of β-oxidation enzymes, including acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and acyl-CoA oxidase (Acox) [39]. In our study, the Acox1 gene was up-regulated by over 5-folds in the diabetic rats following GLSP treatment, which might provide some clear evidences that GLSP could reduce TG level mainly through promoting lipid β-oxidation (Fig. 2). Thus, based on above results in this study, a relationship between GLSP intervention and the expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms in the diabetic rats is summarized in Fig. 3. In brief, GLSP in the diet of type 2 diabetic rats could reduce the blood glucose level possibly through the increasing of the gene expression level of glycogen synthesis (GS2 and GYG1) and glucose homeostasis (Insig-1 and Insig-2). In particular, plasma lipid compositions (TG and TC) decreased concomitantly with increased gene expression levels of Acox1 and Insig-1/2.Fig. 3


Effect of Ganoderma lucidum spores intervention on glucose and lipid metabolism gene expression profiles in type 2 diabetic rats.

Wang F, Zhou Z, Ren X, Wang Y, Yang R, Luo J, Strappe P - Lipids Health Dis (2015)

Gene regulation in metabolic pathways manipulated by GLSP in the diet of type 2 diabetic rats. Arrows in red and green indicate gene up-regulation or down-regulation, respectively. GLSP intervention reduced blood glucose level through increasing glycogen synthesis (GS2 and GYG1) and glucose homeostasis (Insig-1 and Insig-2). Concomitantly, the reduction of plasma lipids occurred following GLSP administration, which might be associated with the increasing of genes expression of Acox1 and Insig-1/2
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4443549&req=5

Fig3: Gene regulation in metabolic pathways manipulated by GLSP in the diet of type 2 diabetic rats. Arrows in red and green indicate gene up-regulation or down-regulation, respectively. GLSP intervention reduced blood glucose level through increasing glycogen synthesis (GS2 and GYG1) and glucose homeostasis (Insig-1 and Insig-2). Concomitantly, the reduction of plasma lipids occurred following GLSP administration, which might be associated with the increasing of genes expression of Acox1 and Insig-1/2
Mentions: In this study, the significant improvement of blood lipid compositions confirmed that GLSP could be used as an efficient therapy for treating hyperlipidemia caused by diabetes and these improvements in blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels might be related to the reduced blood glucose level in the diabetic rats [35, 36]. Nevertheless, other study also suggested that G. lucidum consumption could result in a great suppression of elevated total cholesterol levels, which might be associated with the inhibition of the hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression [17]. The HMG CoA reductase activity associated with lipoprotein metabolism may also contribute to the hypolipidemic effects following GLSP treatment, which is similar to the effects of other plant medicines [37, 38]. Since Insig genes are also associated with lipid metabolism, acyl-CoA oxidase plays an important role in plasma lipid compositions. Fatty acid degradation in most organisms occurs primarily via β-oxidation. Both mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation catalyze the shortening of acyl-CoA esters chains, which requires the participation of β-oxidation enzymes, including acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and acyl-CoA oxidase (Acox) [39]. In our study, the Acox1 gene was up-regulated by over 5-folds in the diabetic rats following GLSP treatment, which might provide some clear evidences that GLSP could reduce TG level mainly through promoting lipid β-oxidation (Fig. 2). Thus, based on above results in this study, a relationship between GLSP intervention and the expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms in the diabetic rats is summarized in Fig. 3. In brief, GLSP in the diet of type 2 diabetic rats could reduce the blood glucose level possibly through the increasing of the gene expression level of glycogen synthesis (GS2 and GYG1) and glucose homeostasis (Insig-1 and Insig-2). In particular, plasma lipid compositions (TG and TC) decreased concomitantly with increased gene expression levels of Acox1 and Insig-1/2.Fig. 3

Bottom Line: Meanwhile, gene expressions associated with the possible molecular mechanism of GLSP regulation were also investigated using a quantitative RT-PCR.Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed up-regulation of lipid metabolism related genes (Acox1, ACC, Insig-1 and Insig-2) and glycogen synthesis related genes (GS2 and GYG1) in GLSP group compared to model control group.This study might indicate that GLSP consumption could provide a beneficial effect in terms of lowering the blood glucose levels by promoting glycogen synthesis and inhibiting gluconeogenesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin, 300457, China. wangfang@tust.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT

Background: The fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for many years. However, to the date, there is no detailed study for describing the effect of G. lucidum spores on oxidative stress, blood glucose level and lipid compositions in animal models of type 2 diabetic rats, in particular the effect on the gene expression profiles associated with glucose and lipid metabolisms.

Methods: G. lucidum spores powder (GLSP) with a shell-broken rate >99.9 % was used. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8/group). Group 1: Normal control, normal rats with ordinary feed; Group 2: Model control, diabetic rats with ordinary feed without intervention; Group 3: GLSP, diabetic rats with ordinary feed, an intervention group utilizing GLSP of 1 g per day by oral gavages for 4 consecutive weeks. Type 2 diabetic rats were obtained by streptozocin (STZ) injection. The changes in the levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in blood samples were analyzed after GLSP intervention. Meanwhile, gene expressions associated with the possible molecular mechanism of GLSP regulation were also investigated using a quantitative RT-PCR.

Results: The reduction of blood glucose level occurred within the first 2 weeks of GLSP intervention and the lipid synthesis in the diabetic rats of GLSP group was significantly decreased at 4 weeks compared to the model control group. Furthermore, it was also found that GLSP intervention greatly attenuated the level of oxidative stress in the diabetic rats. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed up-regulation of lipid metabolism related genes (Acox1, ACC, Insig-1 and Insig-2) and glycogen synthesis related genes (GS2 and GYG1) in GLSP group compared to model control group. Additionally, there were no significant changes in the expression of other genes, such as SREBP-1, Acly, Fas, Fads1, Gpam, Dgat1, PEPCK and G6PC1.

Conclusion: This study might indicate that GLSP consumption could provide a beneficial effect in terms of lowering the blood glucose levels by promoting glycogen synthesis and inhibiting gluconeogenesis. Meanwhile, GLSP treatment was also associated with the improvement of blood lipid compositions through the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis in the type 2 diabetic rats.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus